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Classic Encyclicals (Mystc. Crps. Christi) (2)

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Classic Encyclicals & Other Papal Documents

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Mystici Corporis Christi (Cont.)


On The Mystical Body Of Christ


Pope Pius XII


June 29, 1943

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62. But if we compare a mystical body with a moral body, it is to be noted that the difference between them is not slight; rather it is very considerable and very important. In the moral body the principle of union is nothing else than the common end, and the common cooperation of all under the authority of society for the attainment of that end; whereas in the Mystical Body of which We are speaking, this collaboration is supplemented by another internal principle, which exists effectively in the whole and in each of its parts, and whose excellence is such that of itself it is vastly superior to whatever bonds of union may be found in a physical or moral body. As We said above, this is something not of the natural but of the supernatural order; rather it is something in itself infinite, uncreated: the Spirit of God, who, as the Angelic Doctor says, "numerically one and the same, fills and unifies the whole Church."(116)

63. Hence, this word in its correct signification gives us to understand that the Church, a perfect society of its kind, is not made up of merely moral and juridical elements and principles. It is far superior to all other human societies;(117) it surpasses them as grace surpasses nature, as things immortal are above all those that perish.(118) Such human societies, and in the first place civil Society, are by no means to be despised or belittled; but the Church in its entirety is not found within this natural order, any more than the of whole man is encompassed within the organism of our mortal body.(119) Although the juridical principles, on which the Church rests and is established, derive from the divine constitution given to it by Christ and contribute to the attaining of its supernatural end, nevertheless that which lifts the Society of Christians far above the whole natural order is the Spirit of our Redeemer who penetrates and fills every part of the Church's being and is active within it until the end of time as the source of every grace and every gift and every miraculous power. Just as our composite mortal body, although it is a marvelous work of the Creator, falls far short of the eminent dignity of our soul, so the social structure of the Christian community, though it proclaims the wisdom of its divine Architect, still remains something inferior when compared to the spiritual gifts which give it beauty and life, and to the divine source whence they flow.

64. From what We have thus far written, and explained, Venerable Brethren, it is clear, We think, how grievously they err who arbitrarily claim that the Church is something hidden and invisible, as they also do who look upon her as a mere human institution possessing a certain disciplinary code and external ritual, but lacking power to communicate supernatural life.(120) On the contrary, as Christ, Head and Exemplar of the Church "is not complete, if only His visible human nature is considered..., or if only His divine, invisible nature..., but He is one through the union of both and one in both ... so is it with His Mystical Body"(121) since the Word of God took unto Himself a human nature liable to sufferings, so that He might consecrate in His blood the visible Society founded by Him and "lead man back to things invisible under a visible rule."(122)

65. For this reason We deplore and condemn the pernicious error of those who dream of an imaginary Church, a kind of society that finds its origin and growth in charity, to which, somewhat contemptuously, they oppose another, which they call juridical. But this distinction which they introduce is false: for they fail to understand that the reason which led our Divine Redeemer to give to the community of man He founded the constitution of a Society, perfect of its kind and containing all the juridical and social elements - namely, that He might perpetuate on earth the saving work of Redemption,(123) - was also the reason why He willed it to be enriched with the heavenly gifts of the Paraclete. The Eternal Father indeed willed it to be the "kingdom of the Son of his predilection;"(124) but it was to be a real kingdom in which all believers should make Him the entire offering of their intellect and will,(125) and humbly and obediently model themselves on Him, Who for our sake "was made obedient unto death."(126) There can, then, be no real opposition or conflict between the invisible mission of the Holy Spirit and the juridical commission of Ruler and Teacher received from Christ, since they mutually complement and perfect each other - as do the body and soul in man - and proceed from our one Redeemer who not only said as He breathed on the Apostles "Receive ye the Holy Spirit,"(127) but also clearly commanded: "As the Father hath sent me, I also send you;"(128) and again: "He that heareth you, heareth me."(129)

66. And if at times there appears in the Church something that indicates the weakness of our human nature, it should not be attributed to her juridical constitution, but rather to that regrettable inclination to evil found in each individual, which its Divine Founder permits even at times in the most exalted members of His Mystical Body, for the purpose of testing the virtue of the Shepherds no less than of the flocks, and that all may increase the merit of their Christian faith. For, as We said above, Christ did not wish to exclude sinners from His Church; hence if some of her members are suffering from spiritual maladies, that is no reason why we should lessen our love for the Church, but rather a reason why we should increase our devotion to her members. Certainly the loving Mother is spotless in the Sacraments by which she gives birth to and nourishes her children; in the faith which she has always preserved inviolate; in her sacred laws imposed on all; in the evangelical counsels which she recommends; in those heavenly gifts and extraordinary graces through which with inexhaustible fecundity,(130) she generates hosts of martyrs, virgins and confessors. But it cannot be laid to her charge if some members fall, weak or wounded. In their name she prays to God daily: "Forgive us our trespasses;" and with the brave heart of a mother she applies herself at once to the work of nursing them back to spiritual health. When, therefore, we call the Body of Jesus Christ "mystical," the very meaning of the word conveys a solemn warning. It is a warning that echoes in these words of St. Leo: "Recognize, O Christian, your dignity, and being made a sharer of the divine nature go not back to your former worthlessness along the way of unseemly conduct. Keep in mind of what Head and of what Body you are a member."(131)

67. Here, Venerable Brethren, We wish to speak in a very special way of our union with Christ in the Body of the Church, a thing which is, as Augustine justly remarks, sublime, mysterious and divine;(132) but for that very reason it often happens that many misunderstand it and explain it incorrectly. It is at once evident that this union is very close. In the Sacred Scriptures it is compared to the chaste union of man and wife, to the vital union of branch and vine, and to the cohesion found in our body.(133) Even more, it is represented as being so close that the Apostle says: "He (Christ) is the Head of the Body of the Church,"(134) and the unbroken tradition of the Fathers from the earliest times teaches that the Divine Redeemer and the Society which is His Body form but one mystical person, that is to say to quote Augustine, the whole Christ.(135) Our Savior Himself in His sacerdotal prayer did not hesitate to liken this union to that wonderful unity by which the Son is in the Father, and the Father in the Son.(136)

68. Our union in and with Christ is first evident from the fact that, since Christ wills His Christian community to be a Body which is a perfect Society, its members must be united because they all work together towards a single end. The nobler the end towards which they strive, and the more divine the motive which actuates this collaboration, the higher, no doubt, will be the union. Now the end in question is supremely exalted; the continual sanctifying of the members of the Body for the glory of God and of [Christ who] was slain.(137) The motive is altogether divine: not only the good pleasure of the Eternal Father, and the most earnest wish of our Savior, but the interior inspiration and impulse of the Holy Spirit in our minds and hearts. For if not even the smallest act conducive to salvation can be performed except in the Holy Spirit, how can countless multitudes of every people and every race work together harmoniously for the supreme glory of the Triune God, except in the power of Him, who proceeds from the Father and the Son in one eternal act of love?

69. Now since its Founder willed this social body of Christ to be visible, the cooperation of all its members must also be externally manifest through their profession of the same faith and their sharing the same sacred rites, through participation in the same Sacrifice, and the practical observance of the same laws. Above all, it is absolutely necessary that the Supreme Head, that is, the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth, be visible to the eyes of all, since it is He who gives effective direction to the work which all do in common in a mutually helpful way towards the attainment of the proposed end. As the Divine Redeemer sent the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth, who in His name (138) should govern the Church in an invisible way, so, in the same manner, He commissioned Peter and his successors to be His personal representatives on earth and to assume the visible government of the Christian community.

70. These juridical bonds in themselves far surpass those of any other human society, however exalted; and yet another principle of union must be added to them in those three virtues, Christian faith, hope and charity, which link us so closely to each other and to God.

71. "One Lord, one faith,"(139) writes the Apostle: the faith, that is, by which we hold fast to God, and to Jesus Christ whom He has sent.(140) The beloved disciple teaches us how closely this faith binds us to God: "Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God abideth in him, and he in God."(141) This Christian faith binds us no less closely to each other and to our divine Head. For all we who believe, "having the same spirit of faith,"(142) are illumined by the same light of Christ, nourished by the same Food of Christ, and live under the teaching authority of Christ. If the same spirit of faith breathes in all, we are all living the same life "in the faith of the Son of God who loved us and delivered himself for us."(143) And once we have received Christ, our Head, through an ardent faith so that He dwells within our hearts,(144) as He is the author so He will be the finisher of our faith.(145)

72. As by faith on this earth we hold fast to God as the Author of truth, so by Christian hope we long for Him as the fount of blessedness, "looking for the blessed hope and coming of the glory of the great God."(146) It is because of this universal longing for the heavenly Kingdom that we do not desire a permanent home here below, but seek for one above,(147) and because of our yearning for the glory on high that the Apostle of the Gentiles did not hesitate to say: "One Body and one Spirit, as you are called in one hope of your calling;" (148) nay rather that Christ in us is our hope of glory.(149)

73. But if the bonds of faith and hope, which bind us to our Redeemer in His Mystical Body are weighty and important, those of charity are certainly no less so. If even in the natural order the love of friendship is something supremely noble, what shall we say of that supernatural love, which God infuses in our hearts? "God is charity and he that abideth in charity abideth in God and God in him."(150) The effect of this charity - such would seem to be God's law - is to compel Him to enter into our loving hearts to return love for love, as He said: "If anyone love me..., my Father will love him and we will come to him and will make our abode with him."(151) Charity then, more than any other virtue binds us closely to Christ. How many children of the Church, on fire with this heavenly flame, have rejoiced to suffer insults for Him, and to face and overcome the hardest trials, even at the cost of their lives and the shedding of their blood. For this reason our Divine Savior earnestly exhorts us in these words: "Abide in my love." And as charity, if it does not issue effectively in good works, is something altogether empty and unprofitable, He added immediately: "If you keep my commandments you shall abide in my love; as I have also kept my Father's commandments and do abide in His love."(152)

74. But, corresponding to this love of God and of Christ, there must be love of the neighbor. How can we claim to love the Divine Redeemer, if we hate those whom He has redeemed with His precious Blood, so that He might make them members of His Mystical Body? For that reason the beloved disciple warns us: "If any man say: 'I love God' and hateth his brother, he is a liar. For he that loveth not his brother whom he seeth, how can he love God whom he seeth not? And this commandment we have from God, that he who loveth God loveth his brother also."(153) Rather it should be said that the more we become "members one of another"(154) "mutually careful, one for another,"(155)the closer we shall be united with God and with Christ; as, on the other hand, the more ardent the love that binds us to God and to our divine Head, the closer we shall be united to each other in the bonds of charity.

75. Now the only-begotten Son of God embraced us in His infinite knowledge and undying love even before the world began. And that He might give a visible and exceedingly beautiful expression to this love, He assumed our nature in hypostatic union: hence - as Maximus of Turin with a certain unaffected simplicity remarks - "in Christ our own flesh loves us."(156) But the knowledge and love of our Divine Redeemer, of which we were the object from the first moment of His Incarnation, exceed all that the human intellect can hope to grasp. For hardly was He conceived in the womb of the Mother of God, when He began to enjoy the Beatific Vision, and in that vision all the members of His Mystical Body were continually and unceasingly present to Him, and He embraced them with His redeeming love. O marvelous condescension of divine love for us! O inestimable dispensation of boundless charity! In the crib, on the Cross, in the unending glory of the Father, Christ has all the members of the Church present before Him and united to Him in a much clearer and more loving manner than that of a mother who clasps her child to her breast, or than that with which a man knows and loves himself.

76. From all that We have hitherto said, you will readily understand, Venerable Brethren, why Paul the Apostle so often writes that Christ is in us and we in Christ. In proof of which, there is this other more subtle reason. Christ is in us through His Spirit, whom He gives to us and through whom He acts within us in such a way that all the divine activity of the Holy Spirit within our souls must also be attributed to Christ.(157) "If a man hath not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his," says the Apostle, "but if Christ be in you..., the spirit liveth because of justification."(158)

77. This communication of the Spirit of Christ is the channel through which all the gifts, powers, and extraordinary graces found superabundantly in the Head as in their source flow into all the members of the Church, and are perfected daily in them according to the place they hold in the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ. Thus the Church becomes, as it were, the filling out and the complement of the Redeemer, while Christ in a sense attains through the Church a fullness in all things.(159) Herein we find the reason why, according to the opinion of Augustine already referred to, the mystical Head, which is Christ, and the Church, which here below as another Christ shows forth His person, constitute one new man, in whom heaven and earth are joined together in perpetuating the saving work of the Cross: Christ We mean, the Head and the Body, the whole Christ.

78. For indeed We are not ignorant of the fact that this profound truth - of our union with the Divine Redeemer and in particular of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in our souls - is shrouded in darkness by many a veil that impedes our power to understand and explain it, both because of the hidden nature of the doctrine itself, and of the limitations of our human intellect. But We know, too, that from well-directed and earnest study of this doctrine, and from the clash of diverse opinions and the discussion thereof, provided that these are regulated by the love of truth and by due submission to the Church, much light will be gained, which, in its turn will help to progress in kindred sacred sciences. Hence, We do not censure those who in various ways, and with diverse reasonings make every effort to understand and to clarify the mystery of this our wonderful union with Christ. But let all agree uncompromisingly on this, if they would not err from truth and from the orthodox teaching of the Church: to reject every kind of mystic union by which the faithful of Christ should in any way pass beyond the sphere of creatures and wrongly enter the divine, were it only to the extent of appropriating to themselves as their own but one single attribute of the eternal Godhead. And, moreover, let all hold this as certain truth, that all these activities are common to the most Blessed Trinity, insofar as they have God as supreme efficient cause.

79. It must also be borne in mind that there is question here of a hidden mystery, which during this earthly exile can only be dimly seen through a veil, and which no human words can express. The Divine Persons are said to indwell inasmuch as they are present to beings endowed with intelligence in a way that lies beyond human comprehension, and in a unique and very intimate manner which transcends all created nature, these creatures enter into relationship with Them through knowledge and love.(160) If we would attain, in some measure, to a clearer perception of this truth, let us not neglect the method strongly recommended by the [First] Vatican Council (161) in similar cases, by which these mysteries are compared one with another and with the end to which they are directed, so that in the light which this comparison throws upon them we are able to discern, at least partially, the hidden things of God.

80. Therefore, Our most learned predecessor Leo XIII of happy memory, speaking of our union with Christ and with the Divine Paraclete who dwells within us, and fixing his gaze on that blessed vision through which this mystical union will attain its confirmation and perfection in heaven says: "This wonderful union, or indwelling properly so-called, differs from that by which God embraces and gives joy to the elect only by reason of our earthly state."(162) In that celestial vision it will be granted to the eyes of the human mind strengthened by the light of glory, to contemplate the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in an utterly ineffable manner, to assist throughout eternity at the processions of the Divine Persons, and to rejoice with a happiness like to that with which the holy and undivided Trinity is happy.

81. It seems to Us that something would be lacking to what We have thus far proposed concerning the close union of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ with its Head, were We not to add here a few words on the Holy Eucharist, by which this union during this mortal life reaches, as it were, a culmination.

82. By means of the Eucharistic Sacrifice Christ our Lord willed to give the faithful a striking manifestation of our union among ourselves and with our divine Head, wonderful as it is and beyond all praise. For [in this Eucharistic Sacrifice, the priest] acts as the vicegerent not only of our Savior but of the whole Mystical Body and of each one of the faithful. In this act of Sacrifice through the hands of the priest, by whose word alone [Christ] is present on the altar, the faithful themselves, united with him in prayer and desire, offer to the Eternal Father a most acceptable sacrifice of praise and propitiation for the needs of the whole Church. And as the Divine Redeemer, when dying on the Cross, offered Himself to the Eternal Father as Head of the whole human race, so "in this clean oblation"(163) He offers to the heavenly Father not only Himself as Head of the Church, but in Himself His mystical members also, since He holds them all, even those who are weak and ailing, in His most loving Heart.

83. The Sacrament of the Eucharist is itself a striking and wonderful figure of the unity of the Church, if we consider how in the bread to be consecrated many grains go to form one whole,(164) and that in it the very Author of supernatural grace is given to us, so that through Him we may receive the spirit of charity in which we are bidden to live now no longer our own life but the life of Christ, and to love the Redeemer Himself in all the members of His social Body.

84. As then in the sad and anxious times through which we are passing there are many who cling so firmly to Christ the Lord hidden beneath the Eucharistic veils that neither tribulation, nor distress, nor famine, nor nakedness, nor danger, nor persecution, nor the sword can separate them from His love,(165) surely no doubt can remain that Holy Communion which once again in God's providence is much more frequented even from early childhood, may become a source of that fortitude which not infrequently makes Christians into heroes.

85. If the faithful, Venerable Brethren, in a spirit of sincere piety understand these things accurately and hold to them steadfastly, they will the more easily avoid those errors which arise from an irresponsible investigation of this difficult matter, such as some have made not without seriously endangering Catholic faith and disturbing the peace of souls.

86. For there are some who neglect the fact that the Apostle Paul has used metaphorical language in speaking of this doctrine, and failing to distinguish as they should the precise and proper meaning of the terms the physical body, the social body, and the Mystical Body, arrive at a distorted idea of unity. They make the Divine Redeemer and the members of the Church coalesce in one physical person, and while they bestow divine attributes on man, they make Christ our Lord subject to error and to human inclination to evil. But Catholic faith and the writings of the holy Fathers reject such false teaching as impious and sacrilegious; and to the mind of the Apostle of the Gentiles it is equally abhorrent, for although he brings Christ and His Mystical Body into a wonderfully intimate union, he nevertheless distinguishes one from the other as Bridegroom from Bride.(166)

87. No less far from the truth is the dangerous error of those who endeavor to deduce from the mysterious union of us all with Christ a certain unhealthy quietism. They would attribute the whole spiritual life of Christians and their progress in virtue exclusively to the action of the Divine Spirit, setting aside and neglecting the collaboration which is due from us. No one, of course, can deny that the Holy Spirit of Jesus Christ is the one source of whatever supernatural power enters into the Church and its members. For "The Lord will give grace and glory" as the Psalmist says.(167) But that men should persevere constantly in their good works, that they should advance eagerly in grace and virtue, that they should strive earnestly to reach the heights of Christian perfection and at the same time to the best of their power should stimulate others to attain the same goal, - all this the heavenly Spirit does not will to effect unless they contribute their daily share of zealous activity. "For divine favors are conferred not on those who sleep, but on those who watch," as St. Ambrose says.(168) For if in our mortal body the members are strengthened and grow through continued exercise, much more truly can this be said of the social Body of Jesus Christ in which each individual member retains his own personal freedom, responsibility, and principles of conduct. For that reason he who said: "I live, now not I, but Christ liveth in me"(169) did not at the same time hesitate to assert: "His (God's) grace in me has not been void, but I have labored more abundantly than all they: yet not I, but the grace of God with me."(170) It is perfectly clear, therefore, that in these false doctrines the mystery which we are considering is not directed to the spiritual advancement of the faithful but is turned to their deplorable ruin.

88. The same result follows from the opinions of those who assert that little importance should be given to the frequent confession of venial sins. Far more important, they say, is that general confession which the Spouse of Christ, surrounded by her children in the Lord, makes each day by the mouth of the priest as he approaches the altar of God. As you well know, Venerable Brethren, it is true that venial sins may be expiated in many ways which are to be highly commended. But to ensure more rapid progress day by day in the path of virtue, We will that the pious practice of frequent confession, which was introduced into the Church by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, should be earnestly advocated. By it genuine self-knowledge is increased, Christian humility grows, bad habits are corrected, spiritual neglect and tepidity are resisted, the conscience is purified, the will strengthened, a salutary self-control is attained, and grace is increased in virtue of the Sacrament itself. Let those, therefore, among the younger clergy who make light of or lessen esteem for frequent confession realize that what they are doing is alien to the Spirit of Christ and disastrous for the Mystical Body of our Savior.

89. There are others who deny any impetratory power to our prayers, or who endeavor to insinuate into men's minds the idea that prayers offered to God in private should be considered of little worth, whereas public prayers which are made in the name of the Church are those which really matter, since they proceed from the Mystical Body of Christ. This opinion is false; for the divine Redeemer is most closely united not only with His Church, which is His beloved Spouse, but also with each and every one of the faithful, and He ardently desires to speak with them heart to heart, especially after Holy Communion. It is true that public prayer, inasmuch as it is offered by Mother Church, excels any other kind of prayer by reason of her dignity as Spouse of Christ; but no prayer, even the most private, is lacking in dignity or power, and all prayer is of the greatest help to the Mystical Body in which, through the Communion of Saints, no good can be done, no virtue practiced by individual members, which does not redound also to the salvation of all. Neither is a man forbidden to ask for himself particular favors even for this life merely because he is a member of this Body, provided he is always resigned to the divine will; for the members retain their own personality and remain subject to their own individual needs.(171) Moreover, how highly all should esteem mental prayer is proved not only by ecclesiastical documents, but also by the custom and practice of the saints.

90. Finally, there are those who assert that our prayers should be directed not to the person of Jesus Christ, but rather to God, or to the Eternal Father through Christ, since our Savior as Head of His Mystical Body is only "Mediator of God and men."(172) But this certainly is opposed not only to the mind of the Church and to Christian usage, but to truth. For to speak exactly, Christ is Head of the universal Church as He exists at once in both of His natures(173) moreover He Himself has solemnly declared: "If you shall ask me anything in my name, that I will do."(174) For although prayers are very often directed to the Eternal Father through the only-begotten Son, especially in the Eucharistic Sacrifice - in which Christ, at once Priest and Victim, exercises in a special manner the office of Mediator - nevertheless not infrequently even in this Sacrifice, prayers are addressed to the Divine Redeemer also; for all Christians must clearly know and understand that the man Jesus Christ is also the Son of God and God Himself. And thus, when the Church Militant offers her adoration and prayers to [Christ], the Sacred Victim, her voice seems to re-echo the never-ending chorus of the Church Triumphant: "To him that sitteth on the throne and to the Lamb benediction and honor and glory and power forever and ever."(175)

91. Venerable Brethren, in Our exposition of this mystery which embraces the hidden union of us all with Christ, We have thus far, as Teacher of the Universal Church, illumined the mind with the light of truth, and Our pastoral office now requires that We provide an incentive for the heart to love this Mystical Body with that ardor of charity which is not confined to thoughts and words, but which issues in deeds. If those who lived under the Old Law could sing of their earthly city: "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand be forgotten; let my tongue cleave to my jaws if I do not remember thee, if I make not Jerusalem the beginning of my joy,"(176) how much greater then should be the joy and exultation that should fill our hearts who dwell in a City built on the holy mountain of living and chosen stones, "Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone."(177) For nothing more glorious, nothing nobler, nothing surely more honorable can be imagined than to belong to the One, Holy Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Church, in which we become members of one Body as venerable as it is unique; are guided by one supreme Head; are filled with one divine Spirit; are nourished during our earthly exile by one doctrine and one heavenly Bread, until at last we enter into the one, unending blessedness of heaven.

92. But lest we be deceived by the angel of darkness who transforms himself into an angel of light,(178) let this be the supreme law of our love: to love the Spouse of Christ as Christ willed her to be, and as He purchased her with His blood. Hence, not only should we cherish exceedingly the Sacraments with which holy Mother Church sustains our life, the solemn ceremonies which she celebrates for our solace and our joy, the sacred chant and the liturgical rites by which she lifts our minds up to heaven, but also the sacramentals and all those exercises of piety by which she consoles the hearts of the faithful and sweetly imbues them with the Spirit of Christ. As her children, it is our duty, not only to make a return to her for her maternal goodness to us, but also to respect the authority which she has received from Christ in virtue of which she brings into captivity our understanding unto the obedience of Christ.(179) Thus we are commanded to obey her laws and her moral precepts, even if at times they are difficult to our fallen nature; to bring our rebellious body into subjection through voluntary mortification; and at times we are warned to abstain even from harmless pleasures. Nor does it suffice to love this Mystical Body for the glory of its divine Head and for its heavenly gifts; we must love it with an effective love as it appears in this our mortal flesh - made up, that is, of weak human elements, even though at times they are little fitted to the place which they occupy in this venerable Body.

93. In order that such a solid and undivided love may abide and increase in our souls day by day, we must accustom ourselves to see Christ Himself in the Church. For it is Christ who lives in His Church, and through her, teaches, governs, and sanctifies; it is Christ also who manifests Himself differently in different members of His society. If the faithful strive to live in a spirit of lively faith, they will not only pay due honor and reverence to the more exalted members of this Mystical Body, especially those who according to Christ's mandate will have to render an account of our souls,(180) but they will take to their hearts those members who are the object of our Savior's special love: the weak, We mean, the wounded, and the sick who are in need of material or spiritual assistance; children whose innocence is so easily exposed to danger in these days, and whose young hearts can be molded as wax; and finally the poor, in helping whom we recognize as it were, through His supreme mercy, the very person of Jesus Christ.

94. For as the Apostle with good reason admonishes us: "Those that seem the more feeble members of the Body are more necessary; and those that we think the less honorable members of the Body, we surround with more abundant honor."(181) Conscious of the obligations of Our high office We deem it necessary to reiterate this grave statement today, when to Our profound grief We see at times the deformed, the insane, and those suffering from hereditary disease deprived of their lives, as though they were a useless burden to Society; and this procedure is hailed by some as a manifestation of human progress, and as something that is entirely in accordance with the common good. Yet who that is possessed of sound judgment does not recognize that this not only violates the natural and the divine law (182) written in the heart of every man, but that it outrages the noblest instincts of humanity? The blood of these unfortunate victims who are all the dearer to our Redeemer because they are deserving of greater pity, "cries to God from the earth."(183)

95. In order to guard against the gradual weakening of that sincere love which requires us to see our Savior in the Church and in its members, it is most fitting that we should look to Jesus Himself as the perfect model of love for the Church.

96. And first of all let us imitate the breadth of His love. For the Church, the Bride of Christ, is one; and yet so vast is the love of the divine Spouse that it embraces in His Bride the whole human race without exception. Our Savior shed His Blood precisely in order that He might reconcile men to God through the Cross, and might constrain them to unite in one Body, however widely they may differ in nationality and race. True love of the Church, therefore, requires not only that we should be mutually solicitous one for another (184) as members of the same Body, rejoicing in the glory of the other members and sharing in their suffering (185) but likewise that we should recognize in other men, although they are not yet joined to us in the Body of the Church, our brothers in Christ according to the flesh, called, together with us, to the same eternal salvation. It is true, unfortunately, especially today, that there are some who extol enmity, hatred and spite as if they enhanced the dignity and the worth of man. Let us, however, while we look with sorrow on the disastrous consequences of this teaching, follow our peaceful King who taught us to love not only those who are of a different nation or race,(186) but even our enemies.(187) While Our heart overflows with the sweetness of the teaching of the Apostle of the Gentiles, We extol with him the length, and the breadth, and the height, and the depth of the charity of Christ,(188) which neither diversity of race or customs can diminish, nor trackless waves of the ocean weaken, nor wars, whether just or unjust, destroy.

97. In this gravest of hours, Venerable Brethren, when bodies are racked with pain and souls are oppressed with grief, every individual must be aroused to this supernatural charity so that, by the combined efforts of all good men, striving to outdo each other in pity and mercy - We have in mind especially, those who are engaged in any kind of relief work - the immense needs of mankind, both spiritual and corporal, may be alleviated, and the devoted generosity, the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, may shine resplendently throughout the whole world.

98. As the vastness of the charity with which Christ loved His Church is equaled by its constant activity, we all, with the same assiduous and zealous charity must love the Mystical Body of Christ. Now from the moment of His Incarnation, when he laid the first foundations of the Church, even to His last mortal breath, our Redeemer never ceased for an instant, though He was the Son of God, to labor unto weariness in order to establish and strengthen His Church, whether by giving us the shining example of His holiness, or by preaching, or conversing, or gathering and instructing disciples. And so We desire that all who claim the Church as their mother, should seriously consider that not only the clergy and those who have consecrated themselves to God in the religious life, but the other members of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ as well have, each in his degree, the obligation of working hard and constantly for the building up and increase of this Body. We wish this to be borne in mind especially by members of Catholic Action who assist the Bishops and the priests in their apostolic labors - and to their praise be it said, they do realize it - and also by those members of pious associations which work for the same end. There is no one who does not realize their energetic zeal (188) is of the highest importance and of the greatest weight especially in the present circumstances.

99. In this connection We cannot pass over in silence the fathers and mothers of families to whom our Savior has entrusted the youngest members of His Mystical Body. We plead with them most earnestly, for the love of Christ and the Church, to take the greatest possible care of the children confided to them, and to protect them from the snares of every kind into which they can be lured so easily today.

100. Our Redeemer showed His burning love for the Church especially by praying for her to His heavenly Father. To recall but a few examples: everyone knows, Venerable Brethren, that just before the crucifixion He prayed repeatedly for Peter,(189) for the other Apostles,(190) for all who, through the preaching of the holy Gospel would believe in Him.(191)

101. After the example of Christ we too should pray daily to the Lord of the harvest to send laborers into His harvest.(192) Our united prayer should rise daily to heaven for all the members of the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ; first for Bishops who are responsible in a special way for their respective dioceses; then for priests and religious, both men and women, who have been called to the service of God, and who, at home and in the foreign missions, are protecting, increasing, and advancing the Kingdom of the Divine Redeemer. No member of this venerated Body must be forgotten in this common prayer; and let there be a special remembrance of those who are weighed down with the sorrows and afflictions of this earthly exile, as also for the suffering souls in Purgatory. Neither must those be neglected who are being instructed in Christian doctrine, so that they may be able to receive baptism without delay.

102. Likewise, We must earnestly desire that this united prayer may embrace in the same ardent charity both those who, not yet enlightened by the truth of the Gospel, are still outside the fold of the Church, and those who, on account of regrettable schism, are separated from Us, who though unworthy, represent the person of Jesus Christ on earth. Let us then re-echo that divine prayer of our Savior to the heavenly Father: "That they all may be one, as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that thou hast sent me."(193)

103. As you know, Venerable Brethren, from the very beginning of Our Pontificate, We have committed to the protection and guidance of heaven those who do not belong to the visible Body of the Catholic Church, solemnly declaring that after the example of the Good Shepherd We desire nothing more ardently than that they may have life and have it more abundantly.(194) Imploring the prayers of the whole Church We wish to repeat this solemn declaration in this Encyclical Letter in which We have proclaimed the praises of the "great and glorious Body of Christ"(195) and from a heart overflowing with love We ask each and every one of them to correspond to the interior movements of grace, and to seek to withdraw from that state in which they cannot be sure of their salvation.(196) For even though by an unconscious desire and longing they have a certain relationship with the Mystical Body of the Redeemer, they still remain deprived of those many heavenly gifts and helps which can only be enjoyed in the Catholic Church. Therefore may they enter into Catholic unity and, joined with Us in the one, organic Body of Jesus Christ, may they together with us run on to the one Head in the Society of glorious love.(197) Persevering in prayer to the Spirit of love and truth, We wait for them with open and outstretched arms to come not to a stranger's house, but to their own, their father's home.

104. Though We desire this unceasing prayer to rise to God from the whole Mystical Body in common, that all the straying sheep may hasten to enter the one fold of Jesus Christ, yet We recognize that this must be done of their own free will; for no one believes unless he wills to believe.(198) Hence they are most certainly not genuine Christians(199) who against their belief are forced to go into a church, to approach the altar and to receive the Sacraments; for the "faith without which it is impossible to please God"(200) is an entirely free "submission of intellect and will."(201) Therefore, whenever it happens, despite the constant teaching of this Apostolic See,(202) that anyone is compelled to embrace the Catholic faith against his will, Our sense of duty demands that We condemn the act. For men must be effectively drawn to the truth by the Father of light through the spirit of His beloved Son, because, endowed as they are with free will, they can misuse their freedom under the impulse of mental agitation and base desires. Unfortunately many are still wandering far from Catholic truth, being unwilling to follow the inspirations of divine grace, because neither they (203) nor the faithful pray to God with sufficient fervor for this intention. Again and again We beg all who ardently love the Church to follow the example of the Divine Redeemer and to give themselves constantly to such prayer.

105. And likewise, above all in the present crisis, it seems to Us not only opportune but necessary that earnest supplications should be offered for kings, princes, and for all those who govern nations and are thus in a position to assist the Church by their protecting power, so that, the conflict ended, "peace, the work of justice"(204) under the impulse of divine charity may emerge from out this raging tempest and be restored to wearied man, and that holy Mother Church "may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all piety and chastity."(205)We must plead with God to grant that the rulers of nations may love wisdom,(206) so that the severe judgment of the Holy Spirit may never fall on them: "Because being ministers of His Kingdom you have not judged rightly, nor kept the law of Justice, nor walked according to the will of God; horribly and speedily will he appear to you; for a most severe judgment shall be for them that bear rule. For to him that is little, mercy shall be granted; but the mighty shall be mightily tormented. For God will not except any man's person, neither will he stand in awe of any man's greatness; for he made the little and the great, and he hath equally care of all. But a greater punishment is ready for the more mighty. To you, therefore, O Kings, these are my words, that you may learn wisdom and not fall from it."(207)

106. Moreover, Christ proved His love for His spotless Bride not only at the cost of immense labor and constant prayer, but by His sorrows and His sufferings which He willingly and lovingly endured for her sake. "Having loved His own...He loved them unto the end."(208) Indeed it was only at the price of His Blood that He purchased the Church.(209) Let us then follow gladly in the bloodstained footsteps of our King, for this is necessary to ensure our salvation: "For if we have been planted together in the likeness of His death, we shall be also in the likeness of His Resurrection."(210) and "if we be dead with him, we shall live also with Him."(211) Also our zealous love for the Church demands it, and our brotherly love for the souls she brings forth to Christ. For although our Savior's cruel passion and death merited for His Church an infinite treasure of graces, God's inscrutable providence has decreed that these graces should not be granted to us all at once; but their greater or lesser abundance will depend in no small part on our own good works, which draw down on the souls of men a rain of heavenly gifts freely bestowed by God. These heavenly gifts will surely flow more abundantly if we not only pray fervently to God, especially by participating every day if possible in the Eucharistic Sacrifice; if we not only try to relieve the distress of the needy and of the sick by works of Christian charity, but if we also set our hearts on the good things of eternity rather than on the passing things of this world; if we restrain this mortal body by voluntary mortification, denying it what is forbidden, and by forcing it to do what is hard and distasteful; and finally, if we humbly accept as from God's hands the burdens and sorrows of this present life. Thus, according to the Apostle, "we shall fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ in our flesh for His Body, which is the Church."(212)

107. As We write these words there passes before Our eyes, alas, an almost endless throng of unfortunate beings for whom We shed tears of sorrow; sick, poor, disabled, widows, orphans, and many not infrequently languishing even unto death on account of their own painful trials or those of their families. With the heart of a father We exhort all those who from whatever cause are plunged in grief and anguish to lift their eyes trustfully to heaven and to offer their sorrows to Him who will one day reward them abundantly. Let them all remember that their sufferings are not in vain, but that they will turn to their own immense gain and that of the Church, if to this end they bear them with patience. The daily use of the offering made by the members of the Apostleship of Prayer will contribute very much to make this intention more efficacious and We welcome this opportunity of recommending this Association highly, as one which is most pleasing to God.

108. There never was a time, Venerable Brethren, when the salvation of souls did not impose on all the duty of associating their sufferings with the torments of our Divine Redeemer. But today that duty is more clear than ever, when a gigantic conflict has set almost the whole world on fire and leaves in its wake so much death, so much misery, so much hardship; in the same way today, in a special manner, it is the duty of all to fly from vice, the attraction of the world, the unrestrained pleasures of the body, and also from worldly frivolity and vanity which contribute nothing to the Christian training of the soul nor to the gaining of Heaven. Rather let those weighty words of Our immortal predecessor Leo the Great be deeply engraven upon our minds, that by Baptism we are made flesh of the Crucified:(213) and that beautiful prayer of St. Ambrose: "Carry me, Christ, on the Cross, which is salvation to the wanderers, sole rest for the wearied, wherein alone is life for those who die."(214)

109. Before concluding, We cannot refrain from again and again exhorting all to love holy Mother Church with a devoted and active love. If we have really at heart the salvation of the whole human family, purchased by the precious Blood, we must offer every day to the Eternal Father our prayers, works and sufferings, for her safety and for her continued and ever more fruitful increase. And while the skies are heavy with storm clouds, and exceeding great dangers threaten the whole of human Society and the Church herself, let us commit ourselves and all that we have to the Father of Mercies, crying out: "Look down, we beseech Thee, Lord, on this Thy family, for which our Lord Jesus Christ did not hesitate to be betrayed into the hands of evil men and to undergo the torment of the Cross."(215)

110. Venerable Brethren, may the Virgin Mother of God hear the prayers of Our paternal heart - which are yours also - and obtain for all a true love of the Church - she whose sinless soul was filled with the divine spirit of Jesus Christ above all other created souls, who "in the name of the whole human race" gave her consent "for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature."(216) Within her virginal womb Christ our Lord already bore the exalted title of Head of the Church; in a marvelous birth she brought Him forth as the source of all supernatural life, and presented Him newly born, as Prophet, King and Priest to those who, from among Jews and Gentiles, were the first to come to adore Him. Furthermore, her only Son, condescending to His mother's prayer in "Cana of Galilee," performed the miracle by which "his disciples believed in Him."(217) It was she, the second Eve, who, free from all sin, original or personal, and always more intimately united with her Son, offered Him on Golgotha to the Eternal Father for all the children of Adam, sin-stained by his unhappy fall, and her mother's rights and her mother's love were included in the sacrifice. Thus she who, according to the flesh, was the mother of our Head, through the added title of pain and glory became, according to the Spirit, the mother of all His members. She it was who through her powerful prayers obtained that the Spirit of our Divine Redeemer, already given on the Cross, should be bestowed, accompanied by miraculous gifts, on the newly founded Church at Pentecost; and finally, bearing with courage and confidence the tremendous burden of her sorrows and desolation, she, truly the Queen of Martyrs, more than all the faithful "filled up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ...for His Body, which is the Church";(218) and she continues to have for the Mystical Body of Christ, born of the pierced Heart of the Savior,(219) the same motherly care and ardent love with which she cherished and fed the Infant Jesus in the crib.

111. May she, then, the most holy Mother of all the members of Christ,(220) to whose Immaculate Heart We have trustfully consecrated all mankind, and who now reigns in heaven with her Son, her body and soul refulgent with heavenly glory - may she never cease to beg from Him that copious streams of grace may flow from its exalted Head into all the members of the Mystical Body. May she throw about the Church today, as in times gone by, the mantle of her protection and obtain from God that now at last the Church and all mankind may enjoy more peaceful days.

112. Confiding in this sublime hope, from an overflowing heart We impart to you, one and all, Venerable Brethren, and to the flocks entrusted to your care, as a pledge of heavenly graces and a token of Our special affection, the Apostolic Benediction.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's on the twenty-ninth day of June, the Feast of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, in the year 1943, the fifth of Our Pontificate.


1. Cf. Col. I, 24. | 2. Acts, XX, 28. | 3. Cf. I Peter, IV, 13. | 4. Cf. Eph., II, 21-22; I Peter, II, 5. | 5. Sessio III; Const. de fide cath., c. 4. | 6. Rom., V, 20. | 7. Cf. II Peter, I, 4. | 8. Eph., II, 3. | 9. John, III, 16. | 10. Cf. John, I, 12. | 11. Cf. Vat. Council, Const. de Eccl., prol. | 12. Cf. ibidem, Const. de fide cath., c. 1. | 13. Col., I, 18. | 14. Rom., XII, 5. | 15. Cf. A.A.S., XXVIII, p. 710. | 16. Rom., XII, 4. | 17. I Cor., XII, 13. | 18. Cf. Eph., IV, 5. | 19. Cf. Matth., XVIII, 17. | 20. Cf. Matth., IX, 11; Mark, II, 16; Luke, XV, 2. | 21. August., Epist., CLVII, 3, 22: Migne, P.L., XXXIII, 686. | 22. August., Serm., CXXXVII, 1: Migne, P.L., XXXVIII, 754. | 23. Encycl. Divinum Illud: A.A.S., XXIX, p. 649. | 24. John, XVII, 18. | 25. Cf. Matth., XVI, 18-19. | 26. John, XV, 15; XVII, 8 and 14. | 27. Cf. John, III, 5. | 28. Cf. Gen., III, 20. | 29. Ambrose, In Luc, II, 87: Migne, P.L., XV, 1585. | 30. Cf. Matth., XV, 24. | 31. Cf. St. Thos., I-II, q. 103, a. 3, ad 2. | 32. Cf. Eph., II, 15. | 33. Cf. Col., II, 14. | 34. Cf. Matth., XXVI, 28; I Cor., XI, 25. | 35. Leo the Great, Serm., LXVIII, 3: Migne, P.L. LIV, 374. | 36. Jerome and Augustine, Epist. CXII, 14 and CXVI, 16: Migne, P.L., XXII, 924 and 943; St. Thos., I-II, q. 103, a. 3, ad 2; a. 4; ad 1; Council of Flor. pro Jacob.: Mansi, XXXI, 1738. | 37. Cf. II Cor., III, 6. | 38. Cf. St. Thos. III, q. 42, a. 1. | 39. Cf. De pecc. orig., XXV, 29: Migne, P.L., XLIV, 400. | 40. Cf. Eph., II, 14-16. | 41. Cf. Acts, II, 1-4. | 42. Cf. Luke, III, 22; Mark, I, 10. | 43. Col., I, 18. | 44. Cf. Eph., IV, 16; Col., II, 19. | 45. Col., I, 15. | 46. Col., I, 18; Apoc., I, 5. | 47. I Tim., II, 5. | 48. Cf. John, XII, 32. | 49. Cf. Cyr. Alex., Comm. in Ioh. I, 4: Migne, P.G., LXXIII, 69; St. Thos., I, q. 20, a. 4, ad 1. | 50. Hexaem., VI, 55: Migne, P.L., XIV, 265. | 51. Cf. August., De agon. Christi, XX, 22: Migne, P.L., XL, 301. | 52. Cf. St. Thos., I, q. 22, a. 1-4. | 53. Cf. John, X, 1-18; I Peter, V, 1-5. | 54. Cf. John VI, 63. | 55. Proverbs, XXI, 1. | 56. Cf. I Peter, II, 25. | 57. Cf. Acts, VIII, 26; IX, 1-19; X, 1-7; XII, 3-10. | 58. Philipp., IV, 7. | 59. Cf. Leo XIII, Satis Cognitum: A.A.S., XXVIII, 725. | 60. Luke, XII, 32. | 61. Cf. Corp. Iur. Can., Extr. Comm., I, 8, 1. | 62. Gregory the Great, Moral., XIV, 35, 43: Migne, P.L., LXXV, 1062. | 63. Cf. Vat. Council, Const. de Eccl., Cap. 3. | 64. Cf. Cod. Iur. Can., can. 329, 1. | 65. I Paral., XVI, 22; Ps., CIV, 15. | 66. Cf. I Peter, V, 3. | 67. Cf. I Tim., VI, 20. | 68. Cf. Ep. ad Eulog., 30: Migne, P.L., LXXVII, 933. | 69. I Cor., XII, 21. | 70. John, XV, 5. | 71. Cf. Eph., IV, 16; Col., II, 19. | 72. Comm. in ep. ad Eph., Cap. 1, lect. 8; Hebr., II, 16-17. | 73. Phillipp., II, 7. | 74. Cf. II Peter, I, 4. | 75. Cf. Rom., VIII, 29. | 76. Cf. Col., III, 10. | 77. Cf. I John, III, 2. | 78. Col., I, 19. | 79. Cf. John, XVII, 2. | 80. Cf. Col., II, 3. | 81. Cf. John, I, 14-16. | 82. Cf. John, I, 18. | 83. Cf. John, III, 2. | 84. Cf. John, XVIII, 37. | 85. Cf. John, VI, 68. | 86. Cf. August., De cons. evang., I, 35, 54; Migne, P.L., XXXIV, 1070. | 87. Cf. Hebr., XII, 2. | 88. Cf. Cyr. Alex., Ep, 55 de Symb.; Migne, P.G., LXXVII, 293. | 89. Cf. John, XV, 5. | 90. Cf. St. Thos., III, q. 64, a. 3. | 91. Eph., IV, 7. | 92. Eph., IV, 16; cf. Col., II, 19. | 93. Cf. De Rom. Pont., I, 9; De Concil., II, 19. | 94. Cf. I Cor., XII, 12. | 95. Cf. Acts, IX, 4; XXII, 7; XXVI, 14. | 96. Cf. Greg. Nyss., De vita Moysis: Migne, P.G., XLIV, 385. | 97. Cf. Serm., CCCLIV, 1: Migne, P.L., XXXIX, 1563. | 98. Cf. John, XXVII, 18, and XX, 21. | 99. Cf. Leo XIII, Sapientiae Christianae: A.A.S., XXII, 392; Satis Cognitum: ibidem, XXVIII, 710. | 100. Rom, VIII, 9; II Cor. III, 17; Gal. IV, 6. | 101. Cf. John, XX, 22. | 102. Cf. John, III, 34. | 103. Cf. Eph., I, 8; IV, 7. | 104. Cf. Rom, VIII, 14-17; Gal., IV, 6-7. | 105. Cf. II Cor., III, 18. | 106. A.A.S., XXIX, p. 650. | 107. Gal., II, 20. | 108. Cf. Ambrose, De Elia et ieiun., 10, 36-37, et In Psalm. 118, serm. 20, 2; Migne, P.L., XIV, 710 et XV, 1483. | 109. Eph., V, 23. | 110. John, IV, 42. | 111. Cf. I Tim., IV, 10. | 112. Acts, XX, 28. | 113. Enarr. in Ps., LXXXV, 5; Migne, P.L., XXXVII, 1085. | 114. Clem. Alex., Strom., VII, 2; Migne, P.G. IX, 413. | 115. I Cor., III, 23; Pius XI, Divini Redemptoris: A.A.S., 1937, p. 80. | 116. De Veritate, q. 29, a. 4, c. | 117. Cf. Leo XIII, Sapientiae Christianae: A.A.S., XXII, p. 392. | 118. Cf. Leo XIII, Satis Cognitum: A.A.S., XXVIII, p. 724. | 119. Cf. Ibidem, p. 710. | 120. Cf. Ibidem, p. 710. | 121. Cf. Ibidem, p. 710. | 122. St. Thos., De Veritate, q. 29, a. 4, ad 9. | 123. Vat. Council, Sess. IV, Const. dogm. de Eccl., prol. | 124. Col., I, 13. | 125. Vat. Council, Sess. III, Const. de fide Cath., Cap. 3. | 126. Philipp., II, 8. | 127. John, XX, 22. | 128. John, XX, 21. | 129. Luke, X, 16. | 130. Cf. Vat. Council, Sess. III, Const. de fide Cath., Cap 3. | 131. Serm., XXI, 3: Migne, P.L., LIV, 192-193. | 132. Cf. August., Contra Faust., 21, 8: Migne, P.L., XLII, 392. | 133. Cf. Eph., V, 22-23; John, XV, 1-5; Eph., IV, 16. | 134. Col., I, 18. | 135. Cf. Enar. in Ps., XVII, 51 and XC, II, 1: Migne, P.L., XXXVI, 154, and XXXVII, 1159. | 136. John, XVII, 21-23. | 137. Apoc., V, 12-13. | 138. Cf. John, XIV, 16 and 26. | 139. Eph., IV, 5. | 140. Cf. John, XVII, 3. | 141. I John, IV, 15. | 142. II Cor., IV, 13. | 143. Cf. Gal., II, 20. | 144. Cf. Eph., III, 17. | 145. Cf. Hebr., XII, 2. | 146. Tit., II, 13. | 147. Cf. Hebr., XIII, 14. | 148. Eph., IV, 4. | 149. Cf. Col., I, 27. | 150. I John, IV, 16. | 151. John, XIV, 28. | 152. John, XV, 9-10. | 153. I John, IV, 20-21. | 154. Rom., XII, 5. | 155. I Cor., XII, 25. | 156. Serm. XXIX: Migne, P.L., LVII, 594. | 157. Cf. St. Thos., Comm. in Ep. and Eph., Cap. II, lect. 5. | 158. Rom., VIII, 9-10. | 159. Cf. St. Thos., Comm. in Ep. ad Eph., Cap I, lect. 8. | 160. Cf. St. Thos., I, q. 43, a.3. | 161. Sess. III. Const. de fide Cath., Cap. 4. | 162. Cf. Divinum Illud: A.A.S., XXIX, p. 653. | 163. Mal., I, 11. | 164. Cf. Didache, IX, 4. | 165. Cf. Rom., VIII, 35. | 166. Cf. Eph., V, 22-23. | 167. Ps., LXXXIII, 12. | 168. Expos. Evang. sec. Luc., IV, 49; Migne. P.L. XV, 1626. | 169. Gal., II, 20. | 170. I Cor., XV, 10. | 171. Cf. St. Thos., II-II, q. 83, a. 5 et 6. | 172. I Tim., II, 5. | 173. Cf. St. Thos., De Veritate, q. 29, a. 4, c. | 174. John, XIV, 14. | 175. Apoc., V, 13. | 176. Ps., CXXXVI, 5-6. | 177. Eph., II, 20; I Peter, II, 4-5. | 178. Cf. II Cor., XI, 14. | 179. Cf. II Cor., X, 5. | 180. Cf. Hebr., XIII, 17. | 181. I Cor., XII, 22-23. | 182. Cf. Decree of the Holy Office, 2 Dec. 1940: A.A.S., 1940, p. 553. | 183. Cf. Gen., IV, 10. | 184. Cf. Rom., XII, 5; I Cor., XII, 25. | 185. Cf. I Cor., XII, 26. | 186. Cf. Luke, X, 33-37. | 187. Cf. Luke, VI, 27-35; Matth.,V, 44-48. | 188. Cf. Eph., III, 18. | 189. Cf. Luke, XXII, 32. | 190. Cf. John, XVII, 9-19. | 191. Cf. John, XVII, 20-23. | 192. Cf. Matth., IX, 38; Luke, X, 2. | 193. John, XVII, 21. | 194. Cf. Encyclical Letter, Summi Pontificatus: A.A.S., 1939, p. 419. | 195. Iren., Adv. Haer., IV, 33, 7: Migne, P.G., VII, 1076. | 196. Cf. Pius IX, Iam Vos Omnes, 13 Sept. 1868: Act. Conc. Vat., C.L.VII, 10. | 197. Cf. Gelas. I, Epist., XIV: Migne, P.L. LIX, 89. | 198. Cf. August., In Ioann. Ev. tract., XXVI, 2: Migne, P.L. XXX, 1607. | 199. Cf. August., Ibidem. | 200. Hebr., XI, 6. | 201. Vat. Counc. Const. de fide Cath., Cap. 3. | 202. Cf. Leo XIII, Immortale Dei: A.A.S., XVIII, pp. 174-175; Cod. Iur. Can., c. 1351. | 203. Cf. August., Ibidem. | 204. Is., XXXII, 17. | 205. Cf. I Tim., II, 2. | 206. Cf. Wis., VI, 23. | 207. Ibidem, VI, 4-10. | 208. John, XIII, 1. | 209. Cf. Acts, XX, 28. | 210. Rom., VI, 5. | 211. II Tim. II, 11. | 212. Cf. Col., I, 24. | 213. Cf. Serm., LXIII, 6; LXVI, 3: Migne, P.L., LIV, 357 and 366. | 214. In Ps., 118, XXII, 30: Migne, P.L., XV, 1521. | 215. Office for Holy Week. | 216. St. Thos., III, q. 30, a.1, c. | 217. John, II, 11. | 218. Col., I, 24. | 219. Cf. Vesper hymn of Office of the Sacred Heart. | 220. Cf. Pius X, Ad Diem Illum: A.A.S., XXXVI, p. 453.

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