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Reflections: Priests & Voctns. Sctn. (Penance)

St. John Vianney, the Curé D'Ars (patron saint of priests)

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Priests & The Sacrament of Penance

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Priests & The Sacrament of Penance



Priests & The Sacrament of Penance

Also See: Priests (Topic Page) | Penance / Confession (Topic Page)

"On the evening of that first day of the week, when the doors were locked, where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, 'Peace be with you.' When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord. (Jesus) said to them again, 'Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I send you.' And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, 'Receive the Holy Spirit. Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained.'" (Jn. 20:19-23)

"Even angels can't absolve from sin - this is an unimaginable power!"

"[L]et them not fail to have recourse to a priest, since the power of binding and loosing is granted only to priests." (St. Francis of Assisi)

"The forgiveness of God can be obtained only through the supplication of priests." (Pope St. Leo the Great, Doctor of the Church)

"Pastors should also be mindful of how much the sacrament of Penance contributes to developing the Christian life and, therefore, should always make themselves available to hear the confessions of the faithful." (Second Vatican Council)

"Nothing will prove of greater advantage to the faithful, nothing will be found to conduce more to a willing reception of the Sacrament of Penance, than for pastors to explain frequently the great advantage to be derived therefrom. They will then see that of Penance it is truly said that its roots are bitter, bit its fruit sweet indeed." (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

"You physicians, then, who are the disciples of our illustrious Physician, you ought not deny a curative to those in need of healing. And if anyone uncovers his wound before you, give him the remedy of repentance. And he that is ashamed to make known his weakness, encourage him so that he will not hide it from you." (St. Aphraates, c. 336-345 A.D.)

"Above all, priests should be very careful not to give absolution to any penitent, whose confession they have heard, without obliging him to make full satisfaction for any injury to his neighbor's goods or character for which he seems responsible. No person is to be absolved until he has first faithfully promised to restore all that belongs to others." (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

"Were the Redeemer to descend into a Church and sit in a confessional, and a priest to sit in another confessional, Jesus would say over each penitent: 'Ego te absolvo.' The priest would likewise say over each of the penitents: 'Ego to absolvo,' and the penitents of each would be equally absolved. Thus, the sacerdotal dignity is the most noble of all the dignities in this world." (St. Alphonsus Liguori, Doctor of the Church)

"Can. 889 § 1 The sacramental seal is inviolable; therefore a confessor will diligently take care that neither by word nor by sign nor in any other way or for any reason will he betray in the slightest anyone's sin. § 2 Interpreters are likewise bound by the obligation of preserving the sacramental seal, as well as those who in any way come into knowledge of the confession." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"Let confessors remember the words of St. Alphonsus Liguori on a similar matter: 'In such cases the more severity the confessor uses with his penitents, the more will he help them towards their salvation; and on the contrary, the more cruel will he be the more he is benign.' St. Thomas of Villanova called such over-kind confessors: Impie pios - 'wickedly kind'; 'such charity is contrary to charity.'" (Pope Pius XI, "Ad Catholici Sacerdotii", 1935 A.D.)

"Can. 888 § 1 Priests, in hearing confessions, shall remember that they sustain in their person equally judges and physicians, constituted by God, to look after the divine honor and the welfare of souls. § 2 Let them in all respects avoid inquiring about the names of accomplices as well as useless or curious questions, particularly about the sixth commandment of the Decalogue, and particularly when they inquire about such things with young people ignorant of them." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"As the frailty and weakness of human nature are universally known and felt by each one in himself, no one can be ignorant of the great necessity of the Sacrament of Penance. If, therefore, the diligence of pastors should be proportioned the weight and importance of the subject, we must admit that in expounding this Sacrament they can never be sufficiently diligent. Nay, it should be explained with more care than Baptism. Baptism is administered but once, and cannot be repeated; Penance may by administered and becomes necessary, as often as we may have sinned after Baptism." (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

"For those [that is, priests] who dwell upon earth and make their abode therein, have been commissioned to dispense things which are in heaven, and have received an authority such as God has not given either to angels or to archangels. For it has not been said to them, All that you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and all that you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven (Matt. 18:18). Those who rule upon earth, indeed, have authority to bind, but bodies only; whereas this bond takes hold of the soul itself, and reaches heaven; what priests execute below, God ratifies above, and the Master confirms the judgment of His servants." (St. John Chrysostom, Doctor of the Church, 4th century A.D.)

"We read in Leviticus about lepers, where they are ordered to show themselves to the priest, and if they have leprosy, then they are to be declared unclean by the priest. It is not that the priests make them lepers and unclean; rather, it is the priests who separate the leper from the one who is not a leper, and they can distinguish the clean from the unclean. Just as in the Old Testament the priest [determines whether the leper is clean or unclean], so in the New Testament the bishop binds or looses not those who are innocent or guilty, by reason of their office, when they have heard various kinds of sins, they know who is to be bound and who is to be loosed." (St. Jerome, Doctor of the Church, c. 398 A.D.)

"The words of the Risen Christ on the 'first day of the week' give particular emphasis to the presence of the Paraclete-Counselor as the one who 'convinces the world concerning sin, righteousness and judgment.' For it is only in this relationship that it is possible to explain the words which Jesus directly relates to the [gift] of the Holy Spirit to the Apostles. He says: 'Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.' Jesus confers on the Apostles the power to forgive sins, so that they may pass it on to their successors in the Church But this power granted to men presupposes and includes the saving action of the Holy Spirit." (Pope John Paul II)

"The priest's spiritual and pastoral life, like that of his brothers and sisters, lay and religious, depends, for its quality and fervor, on the frequent and conscientious personal practice of the sacrament of penance. The priest's celebration of the Eucharist and administration of the other sacraments, his pastoral zeal, his relationship with the faithful, his communion with his brother priests, his collaboration with his bishop, his life of prayer - in a word, the whole of his priestly existence, suffers an inexorable decline if by negligence or for some other reason he fails to receive the sacrament of penance at regular intervals and in a spirit of genuine faith and devotion. If a priest were no longer to go to confession or properly confess his sins, his priestly being and his priestly action would feel its effects very soon, and this would also be noticed by the community of which he was the pastor." (Pope John Paul II)

"[St. Ambrose] rejoiced also with those who rejoiced, and wept with those who wept. For whenever anyone confessed his sins to him to receive a penance, he so wept that he forced the penitent too to weep. For he considered that he was himself in a state similar to that of the penitent. But when case of crimes were confessed to him, he spoke of it to none but the Lord alone, with whom he interceded; and thus he left a good example to later priests, to be intercessors with God rather than accusers among men. For even according to the Apostle, love is to be confirmed in dealing with a person of this kind; for he has become his own accuser who does not wait for but anticipates the accuser; and thus, by confessing, he lightens his own sin, lest he have something of which the adversary [i.e. the devil] might accuse him." ('Life of St. Ambrose', c. 420 A.D.)

"But among all these powers of the priest over the Mystical Body of Christ for the benefit of the faithful, there is one of which the simple mention made above will not content Us. This is that power which, as St. John Chrysostom says: 'God gave neither to Angels nor Archangels' - the power to remit sins. 'Whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them: and whose sins you shall retain they are retained'; a tremendous power, so peculiar to God that even human pride could not make the mind conceive that it could be given to man. 'Who can forgive sins but God alone?' And, when we see it exercised by a mere man there is reason to ask ourselves, not, indeed, with pharisaical scandal, but with reverent surprise at such a dignity: 'Who is this that forgiveth sins also?' But it is so: the God-Man who possessed the 'power on earth to forgive sins' willed to hand it on to His priests; to relieve, in His divine generosity and mercy, the need of moral purification which is rooted in the human heart." (Pope Pius XI, "Ad Catholici Sacerdotii", 1935 A.D.)

"To move the faithful to contrition, it will be very useful if pastors point out some method by which each one may excite himself to contrition. They should all be admonished frequently to examine their consciences, in order to ascertain if they have been faithful in the observance of those things which God and His Church require. Should anyone be conscious of sin, he should immediately accuse himself, humbly solicit pardon from God, and implore time to confess and satisfy for his sins. Above all, let him supplicate the aid of divine grace, in order that he may not relapse into those sins which he now penitently deplores. Pastors should also take care that the faithful be exited to a supreme hatred of sin, both because its turpitude and baseness are very great and because it brings us the gravest losses and misfortunes. For sin deprives us of the friendship of God, to whom we are indebted for so many invaluable blessings, and from whom we might have expected and received gifts of still higher value; and along with this it consigns us to eternal torments unending and most severe." (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

"This indulgence and the remission of our sins are given to us in a special manner in the Sacrament of Penance, the masterpiece of God's goodness, by which our weakness is fortified. Let it never happen that the very minister of this Sacrament of reconciliation, himself does not use it. The Church, as you know, declares as follows in this respect: 'Let The Ordinaries be vigilant to see that all their clergy frequently cleanse the stains of their conscience in the Sacrament of Penance'. Though we are the ministers of Christ, we are, nevertheless, wretched and weak; how then can we ascend to the Altar and handle the Sacred Mysteries unless we make a frequent effort to expiate our sins and cleanse ourselves? By means of frequent Confession, 'The right knowledge of one's self is increased, Christian humility is developed, perverse moral habits are uprooted, negligence and spiritual torpor are resisted, the conscience is purified, the will is fortified, salutary self-control is obtained, and an increase of grace is secured by the very fact that the Sacrament is received'." (Pope Pius XII, "Menti Nostrae", 1950 A.D.)

"The power of order, considered in itself, extends to the remission of all sins. But since, as stated above, the use of this power requires jurisdiction which inferiors derive from their superiors, it follows that the superior can reserve certain matters to himself, the judgment of which he does not commit to his inferior; otherwise any simple priest who has jurisdiction can absolve from any sin. Now there are five cases in which a simple priest must refer his penitent to his superior. The first is when a public penance has to be imposed, because in that case the bishop is the proper minister of the sacrament. The second is the case of those who are excommunicated when the inferior priest cannot absolve a penitent through the latter being excommunicated by his superior. The third case is when he finds that an irregularity has been contracted, for the dispensation of which he has to have recourse to his superior. The fourth is the case of arson. The fifth is when it is the custom in a diocese for the more heinous crimes to be reserved to the bishop, in order to inspire fear, because custom in these cases either gives the power or takes it away." (St. Thomas Aquinas, Doctor of the Church and "greatest theologian in the history of the Church")

"A short time previous to His Ascension into heaven, when opening the understanding of His disciples that they might understand the Scriptures, He bore testimony to this Article of the Creed [that is, 'the forgiveness of sins'], in these words: It behooved Christ so suffer, and to rise again from the dead [on] the third day and that penance and remission of sins should be preached, in his name, unto all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Let the pastor but weigh well these words and he will readily perceive that the Lord has placed him under a most sacred obligation, not only of making known to the faithful whatever regards religion in general, but also of explaining with particular care this Article of the Creed... On this point of doctrine, then, it is the duty of the pastor to teach that, not only is forgiveness of sins to be found in the Catholic Church, as Isaiah had foretold in these words: The people that dwell therein shall have their iniquity taken away from them; but also that in her resides the power of forgiving sins; and furthermore that we are bound to believe that this power, if exercised duly, and according to the laws prescribed by our Lord, is such as truly to pardon and remit sins." (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

"The priests of the Lord ought, therefore, so far as the spirit and prudence suggest, to enjoin salutary and suitable satisfactions, in keeping with the nature of the crimes and the ability of the penitents, lest, if they should connive at sins and deal too leniently with penitents, by the imposition of certain very light works for grave offenses, they might become participators in the crimes of others [cf. 1 Tim. 5:22]. Moreover, let them keep before their eyes that the satisfaction which they impose be not only for the safeguarding of a new life and a remedy against infirmity, but also for the atonement and chastisement of past sins; for the ancient Fathers both believe and teach that the keys of the priests were bestowed not only to loose, but also to bind [cf. Matt. 16:19; John 20:23]. Nor did they therefore think that the sacrament of penance is a tribunal of wrath or of punishments; as no Catholic ever understood that from our satisfactions of this kind the nature of the merit and satisfaction of our Lord Jesus Christ is either obscured or in any way diminished; when the [shameless] Innovators wish to observe this, they teach that the best penance is a new life, in order to take away all force and practice of satisfaction." (Council of Trent, 1551 A.D.)

"This truth is clearly conveyed by our Lord Himself, when, by a most beautiful metaphor, He calls the power of administering this Sacrament, the key of the kingdom of heaven. Just as no one can enter any place without the help of him who has the keys, so no one is admitted to heaven unless its gates be unlocked by the priests to whose custody the Lord gave the keys. This power would otherwise be of no use in the Church. If heaven can be entered without the power of the keys, in vain would they to whom the keys were given seek to prevent entrance within its portals. This thought was familiar to the mind of St. Augustine. Let no man, he says, say within himself: 'I repent in secret to the Lord. God, who has power to pardon me, knows the inmost sentiments of my heart.' Was there then no reason for saying 'whatsoever you loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven'; no reason why the keys were given to the Church of God? This same doctrine is taught by St. Ambrose in his treatise On Penance, when refuting the heresy of the Novatians who asserted that the power of forgiving sins belonged solely to God. Who, says he, yields greater reverence to God, he who obeys or he who resists His commands? God commands us to obey his ministers; and by obeying them, we honor God alone." (Catechism of the Council of Trent) 

"In making this necessary acknowledgement of our sins, it is not enough to call them to mind lightly; for it is necessary that the recollection of them be bitter, that it touch the heart, pierce the soul, and imprint sorrow. Wherefore, the pastor shout treat this point diligently, that his pious hearers may not only recollect their sins, and iniquities, but recollect them with pain and sorrow; so that with true interior contrition they may betake themselves to God their Father, humbly imploring Him to pluck from the soul the piercing stings of sin... The pastor, however, should not be content with placing before the eyes of the faithful the turpitude of sin. He should also depict the unworthiness and baseness of men, who, though nothing but rottenness and corruption, dare to outrage in a manner beyond all belief the incomprehensible majesty and ineffable excellence of God, particularly after having been created, redeemed and enriched by Him with countless and invaluable benefits... And for what? Only for this, that separating ourselves from God our Father, who is the supreme Good, and lured by the most base rewards of sin, we may devote ourselves to the devil, so to become his most wretched slaves. Language is inadequate to depict the cruel tyranny which the devil exercises over those who, having shaken off the sweet yoke of God, and broken the most lovely bond of charity by which our spirit is bound to God our Father, have gone over to their relentless enemy, who is therefore called in Scripture, the prince and ruler of the world, the prince of darkness, and king over all the children of pride. Truly to those who are oppressed by the tyranny of the devil apply these words of Isaias: O Lord our God, other lords besides thee have had dominion over us (Isa. xxvi. 13). If these broken commandments of love do not move us, let at least the calamities into which we fall by sin move us" (Catechism of the Council of Trent)

Also See: Priests & The Sacraments | Alter Christus / In Persona Christi | Duties & Responsibilities of Priests | Priests / Priesthood [Pg.] | Sacraments Section | Penance / Confession (Sacraments Section Reflections) | Penance (General Information) | Sacraments (Topical Scripture) | Tough Love in the New Testament | Sin (Topical Scripture)

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