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The Popes: St. Peter-Present (Alpha/Detail) (5)

Ret. to Pope List (A-Z, Detailed) | The Popes | Vatican View

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The Popes: From St. Peter to Present (Cont.)

Sources: Various  |  Last update: 9/12/14

Important Notice: Not an official listing. May include approximations. We make no guarantees regarding any item herein. Use of site is subject to our terms of use. For more terms information, see below and click here


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I - J

Supreme Pontiff

Detail 

(dates*, ages, prior name, feast, comment/attributes, etc.)

St. Innocent I [40]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: December 21/22, 401

End of Reign: March 12, 417

Date of Death: March 12, 417

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 15 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): July 28

 

The Roman Empire fell during his papacy. He promoted clerical celibacy, confirmed Bishops as the ordinary minister of Confirmation, forbid sacred prayers from being spoken in front of infidels, fought the Pelagian heresy, and clearly enunciated papal primacy. First pope to be son of his predecessor, St. Anastasius I (clerical continence did not apply before being elevated to major orders).

Innocent II [165]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: February 14/23, 1130

End of Reign: September 24, 1143

Date of Death: September 24, 1143

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 13.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Gregorio Papareschi

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Was elected quickly upon the death of Honorius. Another election was held and another candidate was chosen. Both were consecrated pope on the same day and an eight year schism ensued. At one point he was forced to retreat from Rome. Innocent was more widely recognized as pope and his rival died in 1138. Innocent held the Second Lateran Council which annulled the actions of the antipope. He also confirmed the condemnation of the heretic Peter Abelard. Later he was held prisoner, and suffered a rift with the French king as well as rioting in Rome.

Innocent III [177]

Birth Date: c. 1160/1161

Beginning of Reign: January 8, 1198

End of Reign: July 16, 1216

Date of Death: July 16, 1216

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 37-38

Lived to Approx. Age: 55-56

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 18.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Lotario

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

A young man with a high regard for the papal office, he defended the temporal and spiritual powers of the papacy. He was a skilled diplomat who defended the sanctity of marriage. He considered heresy treason against God and is praised for his legal skills. He recognized the orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis of Assisi and called for a crusade against the Albigenses (who had murdered his legate). He called the Fourth Lateran Council which required annual confession and annual reception of Holy Communion, reinforced the necessity of being in the Church for salvation, formally canonized the term 'Transubstantiation', and fought heresy.

Innocent IV [181]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: June 25, 1243

End of Reign: December 7, 1254

Date of Death: December 7, 1254

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 11.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Sinibaldo Fieschi

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Called a general council in Lyons which condemned the emperor. Promoted papal power, struggled for years against the emperor, issued collections of legal rulings, fought heresy (allowing the use of severe punishments by the inquisitors), promoted missions. [Note: Innocent's allowing of torture in fighting heresy is shocking to modern sensibilities, but it may, perhaps, appear somewhat less shocking when considered in context. For example, consider that: the Church's tribunals may have allowed less severity than permitted in secular courts (persons, therefore, may have preferred the Church's tribunal to secular courts) and that torture may have been employed only for cases of extreme gravity where guilt appeared certain and when lesser measures were unsuccessful. If one considers the Church's duty to save souls from eternal torment that may arise from adherence to heresy, Her refusing to spare bodies from temporary punishment to prohibit this worse (eternal) loss may, possibly, make such decisions somewhat easier to fathom.]

Bl. Innocent V [186]

Birth Date: c. 1215/1224

Beginning of Reign: January 21, 1276

End of Reign: June 22, 1276

Date of Death: June 22, 1276

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 52-61

Lived to Approx. Age: 52-61

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 5 months

Prior Name (if different): Pierre of Tarentaise

Feast Day (if applicable): June 22

 

First Dominican pope. Reconciled Genoa with King Charles. Died after a short pontificate

Innocent VI [200]

Birth Date: 1282

Beginning of Reign: December 18, 1352

End of Reign: September 12, 1362

Date of Death: September 12, 1362

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 70

Lived to Approx. Age: 80

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 10 years

Prior Name (if different): Etienne Aubert

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Still in Avignon, this pope protected papal power, uprooted abuses, and recovered most of the Papal States. His pontificate witnessed much military turmoil.

Innocent VII [205]

Birth Date: c. 1336

Beginning of Reign: October 17, 1404

End of Reign: November 6, 1406

Date of Death: November 6, 1406

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 68

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 2 years

Prior Name (if different): Cosimo Gentile de' Migliorati

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His papacy continued in a time of discord. He was unable to end the Great Schism of the West and at one point had to escape Rome.

Innocent VIII [214]

Birth Date: 1432

Beginning of Reign: August 29, 1484

End of Reign: July 25, 1492

Date of Death: July 25, 1492

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 52

Lived to Approx. Age: 60

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 8 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Batistta Cibo

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His pontificate saw the breakout of anarchy in Rome and the Papal State. He condemned witchcraft and has been charged with questionable fund raising.

Innocent IX [231]

Birth Date: July 20, 1519

Beginning of Reign: October 29, 1591

End of Reign: December 30, 1591

Date of Death: December 30, 1591

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 72

Lived to Approx. Age: 72

Approx. Length of Reign: 62 days

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Worked to improve sanitation and reduce lawlessness. Already ill, he caught a chill visiting seven pilgrimage churches and died about two months into his papacy.

Innocent X [237]

Birth Date: May 7, 1574

Beginning of Reign: September 15, 1644

End of Reign: January 1, 1655

Date of Death: January 1, 1655

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 70

Lived to Approx. Age: 81

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 10 years

Prior Name (if different): Giambattista Pamfili

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

First pope to use a Secretary of State. He fostered supported missionary activity and condemned Jansenism. His papacy witnessed various military strifes.

Bl. Innocent XI [241]

Birth Date: May 19, 1611

Beginning of Reign: September 21, 1676

End of Reign: August 12, 1689

Date of Death: August 12, 1689

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 65

Lived to Approx. Age: 78

Approx. Length of Reign: Almost 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Benedetto Odescalchi

Feast Day (if applicable): August 12

 

He restored papal finances, and sought strict observance of vows, careful selections of clerics, and increased public decency. He also sought to check the Turkish threat. His papacy saw continual conflicts with France.

Innocent XII [243]

Birth Date: March 13, 1615

Beginning of Reign: July 12, 1691

End of Reign: September 27, 1700

Date of Death: September 27, 1700

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 76

Lived to Approx. Age: 85

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 9 years

Prior Name (if different): Antonio Pignatelli

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

This elderly pontiff reformed the justice system, enlarged harbors to promote trade, assisted the poor, decreed against nepotism, and handled diplomatic matters with France.

Innocent XIII [245]

Birth Date: May 13, 1655

Beginning of Reign: May 8, 1721

End of Reign: March 7, 1724

Date of Death: March 7, 1724

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 66

Lived to Approx. Age: 69

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 3 years

Prior Name (if different): Michelangelo dei Conti

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Attempted to resolve tensions with secular powers, decreed against disobedient Jesuits, and rejected Jansenism. He suffered from illness for much of his papacy.

St. John I [53]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: August 13, 523

End of Reign: May 18, 526

Date of Death: May 18, 526

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: "elderly"

Lived to Approx. Age: "old age"

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 3 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): May 18

 

Assisted in ending persecution of Arians. Against the (Arian) king's will, however, John refused to encourage Arians who were forced (by the emperor) to convert to Catholicism to reconvert to Arianism. Has been regarded as a martyr for orthodoxy.

John II [56]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: January 2, 533

End of Reign: May 8, 535

Date of Death: May 8, 535

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: "elderly"

Lived to Approx. Age: "old age"

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 2 years

Prior Name (if different): Mercury (Mercurius)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He was the first pope to change his own name upon election (his given name was pagan). He contradicted his predecessor in allowing a formula that contained elements considered open to misunderstanding. [Note: Infallibility is not involved here as he was not intending to pronounce infallibly. Also, the formula could have an orthodox interpretation.]

John III [61]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: July 17, 561

End of Reign: July 13, 574

Date of Death: July 13, 574

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Just under 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Catelinus

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

During his reign, he saw the invasion of Italy by the ruthless Lombards. Completed church of Sts. Philip and James. Praised for generosity and courage.

John IV [72]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: December 24, 640

End of Reign: October 12, 642

Date of Death: October 12, 642

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 22 months

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Condemned monothelitism, redeemed captives, argued for an orthodox explanation of Honorius' statement concerning Christ's will (e.g. that it referred to his one human will which is not divided by concupiscence, and not that Christ had only one will).

John V [82]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: July 23, 685

End of Reign: August 2, 686

Date of Death: August 2, 686

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 1 year

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Defended papal primacy. Known for generosity to the poor. Was ill for much of his pontificate.

John VI [85]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: October 30, 701

End of Reign: January 11, 705

Date of Death: January 11, 705

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 3 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Saved the life of Theophylact (the imperial exarch) and ransomed captives.

John VII [86]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: March 1, 705

End of Reign: October 18, 707

Date of Death: October 18, 707

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 2.5 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Asked to ratify or reject decrees of the Emperor's council, he did neither - he merely returned them. As a result, he has been charged with cowardice. He was devoted to the Blessed Virgin and built and restored churches. He Received the return of papal estates back from the Lombards.

John VIII [108]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: December 14, 872

End of Reign: December 16, 882

Date of Death: December 16, 882

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: "old age"

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 10 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Fortified Rome in response to the Arab threat. Was opposed by Formosus (whom he excommunicated). Considered an arbiter of the imperial office. Defended the sanctity of marriage. It has been claimed that he was the first assassinated pope.

John IX [117]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: January 898

End of Reign: January 900

Date of Death: January 900

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 2 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Once again, Stephen VII's (VI's) actions concerning pope Formosus were condemned and future trials of dead persons were prohibited. John restored degraded clerics and ordered an end to the plundering of the papal palace upon the death a pope.

John X [123]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: March/April 914

End of Reign: May 928

Date of Death: 929

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 14 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Much military and political activity occurred during his papacy. He is credited with completing the restoration of the Lateran, enhancing the prestige of the papacy, and restoring peace with the East. He has also been charged with making some decisions based on expediency (i.e. confirming a count's five year old son's election to the archbishopric in exchange for the release of the king). His determination of remaining independent is said to have upset the ruler (Theophylact's ruthless daughter Marozia) and is believed to have resulted in his being deposed, and ultimately killed.

John XI [126]

Birth Date: c. 905

Beginning of Reign: February/March, 931

End of Reign: December 935 /January 936

Date of Death: December 935 /January 936

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 26

Lived to Approx. Age: 30

Approx. Length of Reign: Under 5 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Alleged to be the son of pope Sergius III and the ruthless Marozia, the young John XI is believed to have been controlled by his mother. During his pontificate, a sixteen year old was consecrated as Patriarch of Constantinople. His brother took over the city and John XI may have been imprisoned in the Lateran.

John XII [131]

Birth Date: c. 937

Beginning of Reign: December 16, 955

End of Reign: May 14, 964

Date of Death: May 14, 964

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 18

Lived to Approx. Age: 27

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 8.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Octavian

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

The illegitimate son of the temporal rule Alberic was made pope due to his father's deathbed order. Despite his scandalous reputation and prohibition against discussing a successor before a pope dies, the young man became pope at age 18. It is said that he seized every opportunity of exercising papal authority. Due to the circumstances he faced, he crowned Otto and is therefore credited with reinaugurating the Holy Roman Empire (lasting until the 1800's). He is accused of turning the Lateran Palace into a brothel, plotting with the emperor's enemies, fleeing with the papal treasury, etc. There was a questionable attempt to depose him, but he was able to reestablish his position until he died soon thereafter (believed to be in connection with an adulterous encounter).

John XIII [134]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: October 1, 965

End of Reign: September 6, 972

Date of Death: September 6, 972

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 7 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

The pope was imprisoned and exiled by the Romans. He later escaped and returned to Rome where he was welcomed back. The emperor exacted vengeance on the Romans for their actions against the pope. John promoted clerical celibacy, crowned the emperor's son, and married him (the emperor's son) to a pious princess.

John XIV [137]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: December 983

End of Reign: August 20, 984

Date of Death: August 20, 984

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 8 months

Prior Name (if different): Peter Canepanova

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Changed his name in honor of the first pope. After the death of the emperor, he was vulnerable. He was ultimately overthrown, assaulted, imprisoned, and died (possibly of starvation or poisoning)

John XV [138]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: August 985

End of Reign: March 996

Date of Death: March 996

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 10.5 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Secured peace between the King of England & Duke of Normandy and officially canonized St. Ulrich (the first formal canonization by a pope). At one point he was forced out of Rome.

John XVII [141]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: May 16, 1003

End of Reign: November 6, 1003

Date of Death: November 6, 1003

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 6 months

Prior Name (if different): John Sicco

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Possibly a member of the Crescentii family. Pontificate is believed to have been under the domination of John Crescentius.

John XVIII [142]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: December 25, 1003

End of Reign: June/July 1009

Date of Death: June/July 1009

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 5.5 years

Prior Name (if different): John Fasanus

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Possibly a member of the Crescentii family. Asserted papal primacy. Declared saints. May have abdicated before he died (he died as a monk).

John XIX [145]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: April 19, 1024

End of Reign: October 20, 1032

Date of Death: October 20, 1032

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 8.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Romanus

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

A relative of Benedict VIII, he was similarly elected due to the powerful Tusculum family. He was a layman at his election. As pope, he crowned the emperor and has been considered "politically astute".

John XXI (XX) [188]

Birth Date: c. 1205/1220

Beginning of Reign: September 8, 1276

End of Reign: May 20, 1277

Date of Death: May 20, 1277

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 56-71

Lived to Approx. Age: 57-72

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 8 months

Prior Name (if different): Pedro Juliao (Peter of Spain)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Sought to maintain the union of the Greek Church with Rome. Ordered investigation of false doctrines taught in Paris. Suspended the previous decree regarding conclaves. Died suddenly when the ceiling collapsed. Note: Confusion in the numbering of popes resulted in there being no John XX.

John XXII (XXI) [197]

Birth Date: c. 1244

Beginning of Reign: August 7, 1316

End of Reign: December 4, 1334

Date of Death: December 4, 1334

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 72

Lived to Approx. Age: 90

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 18 years

Prior Name (if different): Jacques Duese

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He built up Avignon, redrew diocesan boundaries, disputed with Franciscans, and promoted missions. He was accused of heresy for maintaining that the saints do not enjoy the Beatific Vision until the final judgment. He eventually retracted his incorrect position (which he said was his own private view, and not an official papal teaching).

St. John XXIII [262]

[Related: What's Up With The Recent Papal Canonizations? (Guest Article)]

Birth Date: November 25, 1881

Beginning of Reign: October 28, 1958

End of Reign: June 3, 1963

Date of Death: June 3, 1963

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 77

Lived to Approx. Age: 82

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 4.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Angelo Guiseppe Roncalli

Feast Day (if applicable): October 11

 

John XXIII "shocked the world" on January 25 1959 when he announced his plan of convoking the Second Vatican Council. He also added St. Joseph's name to the canon of the Mass, wrote on the need to retain the Latin language, and pressed for peace. He died shortly after the first session of Second Vatican Council

Related: What's Up With The Recent Papal Canonizations? (Guest Article)

John Paul I [264]

Birth Date: October 17, 1912

Beginning of Reign: August 26, 1978

End of Reign: September 28, 1978

Date of Death: September 28, 1978

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 66

Lived to Approx. Age: 66

Approx. Length of Reign: 33 days

Prior Name (if different): Albino Luciani

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He was the first pope to take a double name (for his predecessors John XIII and Paul VI) He broke precedent by failing to receive the papal tiara at his coronation. The new pope died suddenly about a month after election.

St. John Paul II [265]

[Related: What's Up With The Recent Papal Canonizations? (Guest Article)]

Birth Date: May 18, 1920

Beginning of Reign: October 16, 1978

End of Reign: April 2, 2005

Date of Death: April 2, 2005

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 58

Lived to Approx. Age: 85

Approx. Length of Reign: Almost 26.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Karol Wojtyla

Feast Day (if applicable): October 22

 

During his long reign, John Paul traveled extensively, wrote voluminously, and enjoyed widespread popularity. He defended life, rejected contraception, confirmed that women are incapable of receiving holy orders, suffered an assassination attempt, issued a new Code of Canon Law, canonized more saints than any previous pope, sought peace, worked to defeat a communist empire, and suffered with an illness for years before his death. He was the first Polish pope.

Related...

* What's Up With The Recent Papal Canonizations? (Guest Article)

* "Great" Popes: When a Pope Should Be & Should Not Be Called Great (User-Submitted Article)

St. Julius I [35]

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: February 6, 337

End of Reign: April 12, 352

Date of Death: April 12, 352

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 15 years

Prior Name (if different):

Feast Day (if applicable): April 12

 

Condemned the Arians, built churches (including Santi Apostoli and Santa Maria in Trastevere), confirmed Roman See as highest court of appeal.

Julius II [217]

Birth Date: December 5, 1443

Beginning of Reign: November 1, 1503

End of Reign: February 21, 1513

Date of Death: February 21, 1513

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 60

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 9 years

Prior Name (if different): Giuliano della Rovere

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

A patron of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante, Julius "aspired to rebuild Rome". This powerful pontiff called the Fifth Lateran Council, strove to extend the papal state, established the first Latin American diocese, conducted military campaigns, and issued the dispensation allowing the future Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon. Criticized by Protestants for selling indulgences.

Julius III [222]

Birth Date: September 10, 1487

Beginning of Reign: February 8, 1550

End of Reign: March 23, 1555

Date of Death: March 23, 1555

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 63

Lived to Approx. Age: 68

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 5 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Appointed Palestrina and Michelangelo, saw the (short-lived) return of England to Rome, and sought to end heresy in Germany.

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