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The Popes: St. Peter-Presnt.(Chron./Detail) (7)

Ret. to Pope List (Chron., Detailed) | The Popes | Vatican View

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The Popes: From St. Peter to Present (Cont.)

Sources: Various  |  Last update: 5/31/05

Important Notice: Not an official listing. May include approximations. We make no guarantees regarding any item herein. Use of site is subject to our terms of use. For more terms information, see below and click here


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13th Century

Supreme Pontiff

Detail 

(dates*, ages, prior name, feast, comment/attributes, etc.)

178. Honorius III

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: July 18, 1216

End of Reign: March 18, 1227

Date of Death: March 18, 1227

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: "elderly"

Lived to Approx. Age: "old age"

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 10.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Cencio Savelli

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Maintained peace. Promulgated a collection of Church law. Gave approval to the orders of St. Francis and St. Dominic (which were recognized by Innocent III). Fought heresy. Promoted the Fifth Crusade.

179. Gregory IX

Birth Date: c. 1155/1170

Beginning of Reign: March 19, 1227

End of Reign: August 22, 1241

Date of Death: August 22, 1241

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 57-72

Lived to Approx. Age: 71-86

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 14.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Ugolino (Ugo)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Condemned the emperor, who turned on the pope. Commissioned an authoritative compendium of Church law, legislated against heresy, instituted the papal inquisition, supported (and canonized) St. Francis & St. Dominic, and supported missions.

180. Celestine IV

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: October 25, 1241

End of Reign: November 10, 1241

Date of Death: November 10, 1241

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: 16 days

Prior Name (if different): Goffredo da Castiglione

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Elected in what has been called the first conclave, the new pope died only days after his election. His death was thought to have been brought on by the deliberately poor conditions during the conclave (which was a forced confinement ordered by the effective dictator of Rome).

181. Innocent IV

Birth Date: N/A

Beginning of Reign: June 25, 1243

End of Reign: December 7, 1254

Date of Death: December 7, 1254

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: N/A

Lived to Approx. Age: N/A

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 11.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Sinibaldo Fieschi

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Called a general council in Lyons which condemned the emperor. Promoted papal power, struggled for years against the emperor, issued collections of legal rulings, fought heresy (allowing the use of severe punishments by the inquisitors), promoted missions. [Note: Innocent's allowing of torture in fighting heresy is shocking to modern sensibilities, but it may, perhaps, appear somewhat less shocking when considered in context. For example, consider that: the Church's tribunals may have allowed less severity than permitted in secular courts (persons, therefore, may have preferred the Church's tribunal to secular courts) and that torture may have been employed only for cases of extreme gravity where guilt appeared certain and when lesser measures were unsuccessful. If one considers the Church's duty to save souls from eternal torment that may arise from adherence to heresy, Her refusing to spare bodies from temporary punishment to prohibit this worse (eternal) loss may, possibly, make such decisions somewhat easier to fathom.]

182. Alexander IV

Birth Date: end of 12th century

Beginning of Reign: December 12, 1254

End of Reign: May 25, 1261

Date of Death: May 25, 1261

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: "elderly"

Lived to Approx. Age: "old age"

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 6.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Rinaldo

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His papacy saw continued power struggles in the temporal sphere and continued political struggles with the rulers. There were unsuccessful efforts to reunite the Eastern and Western Churches.

183. Urban IV

Birth Date: c. 1200

Beginning of Reign: August 29, 1261

End of Reign: October 2, 1264

Date of Death: October 2, 1264

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 61

Lived to Approx. Age: 64

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 3 years

Prior Name (if different): Jacques Pantaleon

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Due to the conditions there, he resided outside Rome. He added cardinals to the College, sought to recover papal control in Italy, and extended the feast of Corpus Christi to the whole Church.

184. Clement IV

Birth Date: c. 1195/1200

Beginning of Reign: February 5, 1265

End of Reign: November 29, 1268

Date of Death: November 29, 1268

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 65-70

Lived to Approx. Age: 68-73

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 4 years

Prior Name (if different): Guy Foulques

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Like his predecessor, he also resided outside of Rome due to conditions there. His papacy saw continued struggles for control and unsuccessful discussions regarding a Greek reunion.

185. Bl. Gregory X

Birth Date: c. 1210

Beginning of Reign: September 1, 1271

End of Reign: January 10, 1276

Date of Death: January 10, 1276

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 61

Lived to Approx. Age: 66

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 4.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Tedaldo Visconti

Feast Day (if applicable): January 9/10

 

After a long vacancy, Gregory was elected pope. He called a general council to discuss the union of Eastern and Western Churches and a new crusade. The council also decreed regarding papal elections.

186. Bl. Innocent V

Birth Date: c. 1215/1224

Beginning of Reign: January 21, 1276

End of Reign: June 22, 1276

Date of Death: June 22, 1276

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 52-61

Lived to Approx. Age: 52-61

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 5 months

Prior Name (if different): Pierre of Tarentaise

Feast Day (if applicable): June 22

 

First Dominican pope. Reconciled Genoa with King Charles. Died after a short pontificate

187. Adrian (Hadrian) V

Birth Date: c. 1205

Beginning of Reign: July 11, 1276

End of Reign: August 18, 1276

Date of Death: August 18, 1276

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 71

Lived to Approx. Age: 71

Approx. Length of Reign: 38 days

Prior Name (if different): Ottobono Fieschi

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Adrian was elected pope in a difficult conclave. After his election, he promised new rules regarding conclaves. He died before being consecrated.

188. John XXI (XX)

Birth Date: c. 1205/1220

Beginning of Reign: September 8, 1276

End of Reign: May 20, 1277

Date of Death: May 20, 1277

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 56-71

Lived to Approx. Age: 57-72

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 8 months

Prior Name (if different): Pedro Juliao (Peter of Spain)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Sought to maintain the union of the Greek Church with Rome. Ordered investigation of false doctrines taught in Paris. Suspended the previous decree regarding conclaves. Died suddenly when the ceiling collapsed. Note: Confusion in the numbering of popes resulted in there being no John XX.

189. Nicholas III

Birth Date: c. 1210/1220

Beginning of Reign: November 25, 1277

End of Reign: August 22, 1280

Date of Death: August 22, 1280

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 57-67

Lived to Approx. Age: 60-70

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 3 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Gaetano

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His papacy saw many diplomatic efforts among competing interests in the temporal sphere. Defended the poverty of the Franciscans. Moved the papal residence to the Vatican. Restored St. Peter's. Persuaded the senator of Rome to resign after completion of his term in office. Effectively enlarged the papal state.

190. Martin IV

Birth Date: c. 1210/1220

Beginning of Reign: February 22, 1281

End of Reign: March 28, 1285

Date of Death: March 28, 1285

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 61-71

Lived to Approx. Age: 65-75

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 4 years

Prior Name (if different): Simon de Brie

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Resided outside of Rome. Terminated efforts at a peaceful union of the Greek Church. Reversed his predecessor's political policies. 

191. Honorius IV

Birth Date: 1210

Beginning of Reign: April 2, 1285

End of Reign: April 3, 1287

Date of Death: April 3, 1287

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 75

Lived to Approx. Age: 77

Approx. Length of Reign: 2 years

Prior Name (if different): Giacomo Savelli

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Reestablished order in Rome and restored peace. Supported the mendicant orders. Disputed over control of Sicily.

192. Nicholas IV

Birth Date: September 30, 1227

Beginning of Reign: February 22, 1288

End of Reign: April 4, 1292

Date of Death: April 4, 1292

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 61

Lived to Approx. Age: 65

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 4 years

Prior Name (if different): Girolamo Masci

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

First Franciscan pope. Sought to protect the papal state. Sent missionaries to China and elsewhere. Embellished churches.

193. St. Celestine V

Birth Date: c. 1209/1210

Beginning of Reign: July 5, 1294

End of Reign: December 13, 1294

Date of Death: May 19, 1296

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 84-85

Lived to Approx. Age: 86-87

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 5 months

Prior Name (if different): Pietro del Morrone

Feast Day (if applicable): May 19

 

After a long vacancy, a renown, ascetic and elderly hermit was elected pope. Although a holy man, he was considered unsuited for the demands of the papal office. He abdicated the papacy after a few months. He was later held in custody until he died.

194. Boniface VIII

Birth Date: c. 1235

Beginning of Reign: December 24, 1294

End of Reign: October 11, 1303

Date of Death: October 11, 1303

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 59

Lived to Approx. Age: 68

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 9 years

Prior Name (if different): Benedetto Caetani

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

This forceful pope conflicted with the King of France. Seeking peace, he intervened in various political disputes. He decreed against taxing clergy without papal approval, published a book of Church law, proclaimed first Jubilee ("Holy Year") in 1300, clearly stated that obedience to the pope is necessary for salvation, founded a university at Rome, and catalogued the papal library. He was seized by order of the King of France, dying shortly thereafter.

Top | The Popes

14th Century

Supreme Pontiff

Detail 

(dates*, ages, prior name, feast, comment/attributes, etc.)

195. Bl. Benedict XI

Birth Date: 1240

Beginning of Reign: October 22, 1303

End of Reign: July 7, 1304

Date of Death: July 7, 1304

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 63

Lived to Approx. Age: 64

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 9 months

Prior Name (if different): Niccolo Boccasino

Feast Day (if applicable): July 7

 

He took a conciliatory approach, but was unable to make much headway in restoring peace. He died after a short reign.

196. Clement V

Birth Date: c. 1260

Beginning of Reign: June 5, 1305

End of Reign: April 20, 1314

Date of Death: April 20, 1314

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 45

Lived to Approx. Age: 54

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 9 years

Prior Name (if different): Bertrand de Got

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Under his reign, the seventy year 'Babylonian Captivity' began (the papacy was moved to Avignon). He faced constant pressure from the French King and dissolved the order of the Knights Templar.

197. John XXII (XXI)

Birth Date: c. 1244

Beginning of Reign: August 7, 1316

End of Reign: December 4, 1334

Date of Death: December 4, 1334

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 72

Lived to Approx. Age: 90

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 18 years

Prior Name (if different): Jacques Duese

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He built up Avignon, redrew diocesan boundaries, disputed with Franciscans, and promoted missions. He was accused of heresy for maintaining that the saints do not enjoy the Beatific Vision until the final judgment. He eventually retracted his incorrect position (which he said was his own private view, and not an official papal teaching).

198. Benedict XII

Birth Date: c. 1280/1285

Beginning of Reign: December 20, 1334

End of Reign: April 25, 1342

Date of Death: April 25, 1342

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 49-54

Lived to Approx. Age: 57-62

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 7.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Jacques Fournier

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He reformed religious orders, imposing strict observance of their rules, protected orthodoxy, reorganized the curia, and built a papal palace in Avignon. During his papacy, the Hundred Years War between France and England broke out.

199. Clement VI

Birth Date: 1291

Beginning of Reign: May 7, 1342

End of Reign: December 6, 1352

Date of Death: December 6, 1352

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 51

Lived to Approx. Age: 61

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 10.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Pierre Roger

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He purchased Avignon for the papacy, extended the palace at Avignon, reduced the time between jubilee years, assisted the poor, defended Jews blamed for the Black Death. His pontificate witnessed much political turmoil.

200. Innocent VI

Birth Date: 1282

Beginning of Reign: December 18, 1352

End of Reign: September 12, 1362

Date of Death: September 12, 1362

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 70

Lived to Approx. Age: 80

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 10 years

Prior Name (if different): Etienne Aubert

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Still in Avignon, this pope protected papal power, uprooted abuses, and recovered most of the Papal States. His pontificate witnessed much military turmoil.

201. Bl. Urban V

Birth Date: 1310

Beginning of Reign: September 28, 1362

End of Reign: December 19, 1370

Date of Death: December 19, 1370

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 52

Lived to Approx. Age: 60

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 8 years

Prior Name (if different): Guilaume de Grimoard

Feast Day (if applicable): December19

 

A generous pope, he supported students and the arts. He fought abuse and was finally able to return the papacy to Rome. He undertook major restoration work in Rome and tried to uproot abuses, but when hostilities surfaced, he returned to Avignon where he soon died.

202. Gregory XI

Birth Date: 1329

Beginning of Reign: December 30, 1370

End of Reign: March 27, 1378

Date of Death: March 27, 1378

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 41

Lived to Approx. Age: 49

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 7 years

Prior Name (if different): Pierre Roger de Beaufort

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Tried to establish peace. He is known for staunchly fighting heresy (including condemning the heretic John Wyclif, an English priest). This French pope is also credited with finally bringing back the papacy from Avignon, France to Rome on January 17, 1377.

203. Urban VI

Birth Date: c. 1318

Beginning of Reign: April 8, 1378

End of Reign: October 15, 1389

Date of Death: October 15, 1389

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 60

Lived to Approx. Age: 71

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 11.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Bartolomeo Prignano

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

At the conclave, cardinals appeased an angry mob - fearful of the papacy returning to France - by telling them a Roman had been elected pope, when this was not the case. Afterwards, Urban's behavior caused alarm and the validity of Urban's pontificate was questioned. An antipope was elected and the Great Schism of the west began. Years of strife ensued, and Urban's behavior was criticized. Urban extended the feast of the Visitation to the whole Church.

204. Boniface IX

Birth Date: c. 1350

Beginning of Reign: November 2, 1389

End of Reign: October 1, 1404

Date of Death: October 1, 1404

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 39

Lived to Approx. Age: 54

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 15 years

Prior Name (if different): Pietro Tomacelli

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Asserted papal authority, gained more control over the papal state, made an offer to the antipope to end the Great Schism of the West. Has been charged with questionable fund raising.

Top | The Popes

* All dates A.D.

Continued on Next Page


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