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The Popes: St. Peter-Presnt.(Chron./Detail) (8)

Ret. to Pope List (Chron., Detailed) | The Popes | Vatican View

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The Popes: From St. Peter to Present (Cont.)

Sources: Various  |  Last update: 5/31/05

Important Notice: Not an official listing. May include approximations. We make no guarantees regarding any item herein. Use of site is subject to our terms of use. For more terms information, see below and click here


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15th Century

Supreme Pontiff

Detail 

(dates*, ages, prior name, feast, comment/attributes, etc.)

205. Innocent VII

Birth Date: c. 1336

Beginning of Reign: October 17, 1404

End of Reign: November 6, 1406

Date of Death: November 6, 1406

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 68

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 2 years

Prior Name (if different): Cosimo Gentile de' Migliorati

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His papacy continued in a time of discord. He was unable to end the Great Schism of the West and at one point had to escape Rome.

206. Gregory XII

Birth Date: c. 1325

Beginning of Reign: November 30, 1406

End of Reign: July 4, 1415

Date of Death: October 18, 1417

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 81

Lived to Approx. Age: 92

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 8.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Angelo Correr

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Over eighty years old at his election, Gregory sought to end the Great Schism of the West. To that end, he ultimately convened the Council of Constance and abdicated the papacy.

207. Martin V

Birth Date: 1368

Beginning of Reign: November 11, 1417

End of Reign: February 20, 1431

Date of Death: February 20, 1431

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 49

Lived to Approx. Age: 63

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Oddo Colonna

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Elected in a unique conclave, his elevation to the papacy effectively ended the Great Schism of the West. Martin asserted papal authority (including over councils), reconstructed the Curia, and reestablished order in the Papal State.

208. Eugenius (Eugene) IV

Birth Date: c. 1383

Beginning of Reign: March 3, 1431

End of Reign: February 23, 1447

Date of Death: February 23, 1447

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 48

Lived to Approx. Age: 64

Approx. Length of Reign: Just under 16 years

Prior Name (if different): Gabriele Condulmaro

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

At one point, Eugenius was forced to flee Rome due to unrest in the area. His papacy saw a reconciliation with the Greeks, the attempted outranking of a council over papal authority, as well as the operation of two rival synods and the election of an antipope. Eugenius' council (at Florence) firmly stressed the necessity of being in the Church for salvation.

209. Nicholas V

Birth Date: November 15, 1397

Beginning of Reign: March 6, 1447

End of Reign: March 24, 1455

Date of Death: March 24, 1455

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 50

Lived to Approx. Age: 58

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 8 years

Prior Name (if different): Tommaso Parentucelli

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Restored order in Rome, crowned the emperor, patronized artists, architects, and scholars, and had Greek manuscripts translated into Latin. He has been considered the founder of the Vatican Library.

210. Callistus III

Birth Date: December 31, 1378

Beginning of Reign: April 8, 1455

End of Reign: August 6, 1458

Date of Death: August 6, 1458

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 77

Lived to Approx. Age: 80

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 3 years

Prior Name (if different): Alfonso de Borja (Borgia)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Sought a crusade to recapture Constantinople from the Turks, enjoyed some sporadic military successes, ordered the universal observance of the feast of the Transfiguration, reopened the case of Joan of Arc.

211. Pius II

Birth Date: October 18, 1405

Beginning of Reign: August 19, 1458

End of Reign: August 15, 1464

Date of Death: August 15, 1464

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 53

Lived to Approx. Age: 59

Approx. Length of Reign: Just under 6 years

Prior Name (if different): Enea Silvio Piccolomini

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Sought a crusade, condemned appeal from a pope to a future council. He is considered a voluminous writer.

212. Paul II

Birth Date: February 23, 1417

Beginning of Reign: August 30, 1464

End of Reign: July 26, 1471

Date of Death: July 26, 1471

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 47

Lived to Approx. Age: 54

Approx. Length of Reign: Almost 7 years

Prior Name (if different): Pietro Barbo

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Excommunicated a king, helped to open Roman printing press, restored monuments.

213. Sixtus (Xystus) IV

Birth Date: July 21, 1414

Beginning of Reign: August 9, 1471

End of Reign: August 12, 1484

Date of Death: August 12, 1484

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 57

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Francesco della Rovere

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Engaged in extensive building projects, including churches, the Sistine Chapel, a bridge, and palaces. He approved the feast of the Immaculate Conception, proclaimed a crusade, and set up the Spanish Inquisition (and tried to curb abuses). He has been considered the second founder of the Vatican Library. His pontificate saw the breakout of war. He has been charged with questionable fund raising.

214. Innocent VIII

Birth Date: 1432

Beginning of Reign: August 29, 1484

End of Reign: July 25, 1492

Date of Death: July 25, 1492

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 52

Lived to Approx. Age: 60

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 8 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Battista Cibo

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

His pontificate saw the breakout of anarchy in Rome and the Papal State. He condemned witchcraft and has been charged with questionable fund raising.

215. Alexander VI

Birth Date: January 1, 1431

Beginning of Reign: August 11, 1492

End of Reign: August 18, 1503

Date of Death: August 18, 1503

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 61

Lived to Approx. Age: 72

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 11 years

Prior Name (if different): Rodrigo de Borja y Borja (Borgia)

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

"One of the most infamous of all pontiffs." Commissioned Michelangelo, restored Castel Sant' Angelo.

Top | The Popes

16th Century

Supreme Pontiff

Detail 

(dates*, ages, prior name, feast, comment/attributes, etc.)

216. Pius III

Birth Date: 1439

Beginning of Reign: September 22, 1503

End of Reign: October 18, 1503

Date of Death: October 18, 1503

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 64

Lived to Approx. Age: 64

Approx. Length of Reign: 26 days

Prior Name (if different): Francesco Todeschini

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Considered a man of integrity, Pius was elected pope. He died only ten days after coronation.

217. Julius II

Birth Date: December 5, 1443

Beginning of Reign: November 1, 1503

End of Reign: February 21, 1513

Date of Death: February 21, 1513

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 60

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 9 years

Prior Name (if different): Giuliano della Rovere

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

A patron of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante, Julius "aspired to rebuild Rome". This powerful pontiff called the Fifth Lateran Council, strove to extend the papal state, established the first Latin American diocese, conducted military campaigns, and issued the dispensation allowing the future Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon. Criticized by Protestants for selling indulgences.

218. Leo X

Birth Date: December 11, 1475

Beginning of Reign: March 11, 1513

End of Reign: December 1, 1521

Date of Death: December 1, 1521

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 38

Lived to Approx. Age: 46

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 8.5 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni de' Medici

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

This young pontiff closed the Fifth Lateran Council, was a patron to Raphael and the University of Rome, engaged in military maneuvers, decreed a crusade, and condemned Martin Luther. Criticized by Protestants for selling indulgences (Luther's revolt began in 1517).

219. Adrian (Hadrian) VI

Birth Date: March 2, 1459

Beginning of Reign: January 9, 1522

End of Reign: September 14, 1523

Date of Death: September 14, 1523

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 63

Lived to Approx. Age: 64

Approx. Length of Reign: Approx. 20 months

Prior Name (if different): Adrian Florensz Dedal

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

First pope in years to retain baptismal name. He attempted to reform the papacy, engaged in defense against the Turks, and fought against heresy.

220. Clement VII

Birth Date: May 26, 1479

Beginning of Reign: November 19, 1523

End of Reign: September 25, 1534

Date of Death: September 25, 1534

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 44

Lived to Approx. Age: 55

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 11 years

Prior Name (if different): Giulio de' Medici

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Sought to defend Europe and the Papal State, was imprisoned in Castel Sant' Angelo, suffered the rise of heresy in Germany and the sack of Rome. His papacy also witnessed the spread of Catholicism in Mexico and South America. His defense of the sanctity of marriage would lead England to break with the Church.

221. Paul III

Birth Date: February 29, 1468

Beginning of Reign: October 13, 1534

End of Reign: November 10, 1549

Date of Death: November 10, 1549

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 66

Lived to Approx. Age: 81

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 15 years

Prior Name (if different): Alessandro Garnese

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Patron of writers, scholars, and artists. He approved the constitutions of the Jesuits, initiated the Holy Office to combat heresy, instituted censorship of books, and called the Council of Trent. He also imposed excommunication on Henry VIII and put England under interdict.

222. Julius III

Birth Date: September 10, 1487

Beginning of Reign: February 8, 1550

End of Reign: March 23, 1555

Date of Death: March 23, 1555

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 63

Lived to Approx. Age: 68

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 5 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Appointed Palestrina and Michelangelo, saw the (short-lived) return of England to Rome, and sought to end heresy in Germany.

223. Marcellus II

Birth Date: May 6, 1501

Beginning of Reign: April 9, 1555

End of Reign: May 1, 1555

Date of Death: May 1, 1555

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 54

Lived to Approx. Age: 54

Approx. Length of Reign: 22 days

Prior Name (if different): Marcello Cervini

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Like Adrian VI, he retained his baptismal name. He engaged in administrative reform, but died in a matter of days.

224. Paul IV

Birth Date: June 28, 1476

Beginning of Reign: May 23, 1555

End of Reign: August 18, 1559

Date of Death: August 18, 1559

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 79

Lived to Approx. Age: 83

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 4 years

Prior Name (if different): Giampietro Carafa

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Although elderly when elected, he was a zealous pope who fought against heresy, created the Index of Forbidden books, and rejected Elizabeth of England's claim to the throne. Some have charged him with anti-Semitism due to his measures placing restrictions on Jews (including restricting them to certain quarters, or ghettos). [Note: The customary practice of the popes and of the Church in general are far from condoning persecution of the Jews. In fact, the Church has often been their protector and regularly prayed for their conversion. Some actions taken against Jews in the past may have been motivated by fear or by situational factors (e.g. to protect the faith of Catholics after a large increase in the Jewish population in Rome); the Church, however, staunchly rejects persecution of the Jewish people.]

225. Pius IV

Birth Date: March 31, 1499

Beginning of Reign: December 25, 1559

End of Reign: December 9, 1565

Date of Death: December 9, 1565

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 60

Lived to Approx. Age: 66

Approx. Length of Reign: Just under 6 years

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Angelo Medici

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He eased some of his predecessor's measures, appointed his relative, St. Charles Borromeo, as Archbishop of Milan, supported artists and scholars, and reconvened & concluded the Council of Trent.

226. St. Pius V

Birth Date: January 17, 1504

Beginning of Reign: January 7, 1566

End of Reign: May 1, 1572

Date of Death: May 1, 1572

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 62

Lived to Approx. Age: 68

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 6 years

Prior Name (if different): Michele Ghislieri

Feast Day (if applicable): April 30 (May 5, Trad.)

 

His papacy saw the important naval victory at Lepanto on October 7, 1571 [The victory was attributed to Our Lady and lead to his establishment of a feast in her honor (Our Lady of Victory, now Our Lady of the Rosary)]. He excommunicated Elizabeth I of England, published the new catechism and breviary, implemented Tridentine reforms, fought immorality and heresy, and perpetually canonized the Tridentine (old Latin) Mass. Pius V was the first sainted pope in many years (the next one being Pope St. Pius X).

227. Gregory XIII

Birth Date: January 1, 1502

Beginning of Reign: May 14, 1572

End of Reign: April 10, 1585

Date of Death: April 10, 1585

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 70

Lived to Approx. Age: 83

Approx. Length of Reign: Nearly 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Ugo Boncompagni

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

He promoted missionary activity, implemented Tridentine reforms, opposed heresy, founded colleges, completed the reform of the Julian calendar (dropping 10 days, October 5-14, 1582), published the Corpus of Canon Law, and engaged in considerable building works. His papacy saw the rise of lawlessness in Rome and the Papal State.

228. Sixtus (Xystus) V

Birth Date: December 13, 1520

Beginning of Reign: April 24, 1585

End of Reign: August 27, 1590

Date of Death: August 27, 1590

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 65

Lived to Approx. Age: 70

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 5 years

Prior Name (if different): Felice Peretti

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Restored order in the public state (even allowing public executions), engaged in extensive building works, including work on the Vatican, streets, aqueducts and bridges, encouraged agriculture, encouraged missionary efforts, founded the Vatican press, and reorganized the Church's administration. His papacy has also been considered the "closest call" for papal infallibility as he was thought to be on the verge of formally promulgating a version of the Vulgate (Bible) that contained numerous errors before he died suddenly. It has been theorized that his sudden death was a direct intervention by God, protecting the papacy from formally proclaiming error.

229. Urban VII

Birth Date: August 4, 1521

Beginning of Reign: September 15, 1590

End of Reign: September 27, 1590

Date of Death: September 27, 1590

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 69

Lived to Approx. Age: 69

Approx. Length of Reign: 12 days

Prior Name (if different): Giambattista Castagna

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

This experienced prelate fell ill the night after his election and died within days.

230. Gregory XIV

Birth Date: February 11, 1535

Beginning of Reign: December 5, 1590

End of Reign: October 16, 1591

Date of Death: October 16, 1591

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 55

Lived to Approx. Age: 56

Approx. Length of Reign: Just over 10 months

Prior Name (if different): Niccolo Sfondrati

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

In his short papacy, Gregory assisted in plague relief, implemented reforms, and prohibited bets regarding papal elections, length of pontificates, and the creation of cardinals.

231. Innocent IX

Birth Date: July 20, 1519

Beginning of Reign: October 29, 1591

End of Reign: December 30, 1591

Date of Death: December 30, 1591

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 72

Lived to Approx. Age: 72

Approx. Length of Reign: 62 days

Prior Name (if different): Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Worked to improve sanitation and reduce lawlessness. Already ill, he caught a chill visiting seven pilgrimage churches and died about two months into his papacy.

232. Clement VIII

Birth Date: February 24, 1536

Beginning of Reign: January 30, 1592

End of Reign: March 5, 1605

Date of Death: March 5, 1605

Approx. Age at Beginning of Reign: 56

Lived to Approx. Age: 69

Approx. Length of Reign: Over 13 years

Prior Name (if different): Ippolito Aldobrandini

Feast Day (if applicable): N/A

 

Fought heresy, implemented reform, published a new edition of the Vulgate, mediated peace between France and Spain, and appointed St. Frances de Sales as bishop of Geneva.

Top | The Popes

* All dates A.D.

Continued on Next Page


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