/ judges / judged
"Far be it from you to do such a thing, to make the innocent die
with the guilty, so that the innocent and the guilty would be
treated alike! Should not the judge of all the world act with
justice?" [GEN 18:25]
The next day he went out again, and now two Hebrews were fighting! So he asked the culprit, "Why are you striking your fellow Hebrew?" But he replied, "Who has appointed you ruler and judge over us? Are you thinking of killing me as you killed the Egyptian?" Then Moses became afraid and thought, "The affair must certainly be known."
When, therefore, they left Pharaoh and came upon Moses and Aaron, who were waiting to meet them, they said to them, "The LORD look upon you and judge! You have brought us into bad odor with Pharaoh and his servants and have put a sword in their hands to slay us."
"You shall not act dishonestly in rendering judgment. Show
neither partiality to the weak nor deference to the mighty, but
judge your fellow men justly." [LEV 19:15]
"If in your own community there is a case at issue which proves too complicated for you to decide, in a matter of bloodshed or of civil rights or of personal injury, you shall then go up to the place which the LORD, your God, chooses, to the levitical priests or to the judge who is in office at that time. They shall study the case and then hand down to you their decision."
Any man who has the insolence to refuse to listen to the priest
who officiates there in the ministry of the LORD, your God, or to
the judge, shall die. Thus shall you purge the evil from your
midst. [DEUT 17:12]
Whenever the LORD raised up judges for them, he would be with
the judge and save them from the power of their enemies as long as
the judge lived; it was thus the LORD took pity on their
distressful cries of affliction under their oppressors. But when the judge died, they would relapse and do worse than
their fathers, following other gods in service and worship,
relinquishing none of their evil practices or stubborn conduct.
"I have not sinned against you, but you wrong me by warring
against me. Let the LORD, who is judge, decide this day between
the Israelites and the Ammonites!" [JUDG 11:27]
"Speak boastfully no longer, nor let arrogance issue from
your mouths. For an all-knowing God is the LORD, a God who judges
deeds." [1SAM 2:3]
"He will guard the footsteps of his faithful ones, but the wicked shall perish in the darkness.
For not by strength does man prevail; the LORD'S foes shall be shattered. The Most High in heaven
thunders; The LORD judges the ends of the earth, Now may he give
strength to his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed!"
So Samuel told him everything, and held nothing back. Eli
answered, "He is the LORD. He will do what he judges
best." [1SAM 3:18]
When they were gathered at Mizpah, they drew water and poured
it out on the ground before the LORD, and they fasted that day,
confessing, "We have sinned against the LORD." It was at
Mizpah that Samuel began to judge the Israelites. [1SAM 7:6]
In his old age Samuel appointed his sons judges over Israel. His first-born was named Joel, his second son, Abijah; they judged at Beer-sheba. His sons did not follow his example but sought illicit gain and accepted bribes, perverting justice. Therefore all the elders of Israel came in a body to Samuel at Ramah and said to him, "Now that you are old, and your sons do not follow your example, appoint a king over us, as other nations have, to judge us." Samuel was displeased when they asked for a king to judge them. He prayed to the LORD, however, who said in answer: "Grant the people's every request. It is not you they reject, they are rejecting me as their king.
As they have treated me constantly from the day I brought them up from Egypt to this day, deserting me and worshiping strange gods, so do they treat you too. Now grant their request; but at the same time, warn them solemnly and inform them of the rights of the king who will rule them."
When you see these signs fulfilled, do whatever you judge
feasible, because God is with you. [1SAM 10:7]
But the LORD said to Samuel: "Do not judge from his
appearance or from his lofty stature, because I have rejected him.
Not as man sees does God see, because man sees the appearance but
the LORD looks into the heart." [1SAM 16:7]
The LORD will judge between me and you, and the LORD will exact
justice from you in my case. I shall not touch you. [1SAM 24:13]
"The LORD will be the judge; he will decide between me and you.
May he see this, and take my part, and grant me justice beyond
your reach!" [1SAM 24:16]
"Be brave; let us prove our valor for the sake of our people and
the cities of our God; the LORD will do what he judges best."
LORD sent Nathan to David, and when he came to him, he said: "Judge this case for me! In a certain town there were two men, one rich, the other poor. The rich man had flocks and herds in great numbers. But the poor man had nothing at all except one little ewe lamb that he had bought. He nourished her, and she grew up with him and his children. She shared the little food he had and drank from his cup and slept in his bosom. She was like a daughter to him.
Now, the rich man received a visitor, but he would not take from his own...
Instead he took the poor man's ewe lamb ..." David grew very angry with that man and said to Nathan: "As the LORD lives, the man who has done this merits death! He shall restore the ewe lamb fourfold because he has done this and has had no pity."
Solomon answered: "You have shown great favor to your servant, my father David, because he behaved faithfully toward you, with justice and an upright heart; and you have continued this great favor toward him, even today, seating a son of his on his throne. O LORD, my God, you have made me, your servant, king to succeed my father David; but I am a mere youth, not knowing at all how to act. I serve you in the midst of the people whom you have chosen, a people so vast that it cannot be numbered or counted. Give your servant, therefore, an understanding heart to judge your people and to distinguish right from wrong. For who is able to govern this vast people of yours?" The LORD was pleased that Solomon made this request.
Jehoshaphat dwelt in Jerusalem; but he went out again among the people from Beer-sheba to the highlands of Ephraim and brought them back to the LORD, the God of their fathers. He appointed judges in the land, in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city, and he said to them: "Take care what you do, for you are judging, not on behalf of man, but on behalf of the LORD; he judges with you. And now, let the fear of the LORD be upon you. Act carefully, for with the LORD, our God there is no injustice, no partiality, no bribe-taking." In Jerusalem also, Jehoshaphat appointed some Levites and priests and some of the family heads of Israel to judge in the name of the LORD and to settle quarrels among the inhabitants of Jerusalem. He gave them this command: "You shall act faithfully and wholeheartedly in the fear of the LORD. And in every dispute that your brethren living in their cities bring to you, whether it concerns bloodguilt or questions of law, command, statutes, or judgments, warn them lest they become guilty before the LORD and his wrath come upon you and your brethren. Do that and you shall be guiltless. See now, Amariah is high priest over you in everything that pertains to the LORD, and Zebadiah, son of Ishmael, is leader of the house of Judah in all that pertains to the king; and the Levites will be your officials. Act firmly, and the LORD will be with the good."
"You are righteous, O Lord, and all your deeds are just;
All your ways are mercy and truth; you are the judge of the world."
"God judge between you and us! You have done us grave
injustice in not making peace with the Assyrians." [JDTH 7:24]
Joshua, for executing his commission, became a judge in Israel.
"In the same way, crush this army before us today, and let the
rest know that Nicanor spoke wickedly against your sanctuary;
judge him according to his wickedness." [1MACC 7:42]
Then the sword ceased in Israel. Jonathan settled in Michmash;
he began to judge the people and he destroyed the impious in
Israel. [1MACC 9:73]
As soon as Judas heard of the barbarous deed perpetrated against his countrymen, he summoned his men; and after calling upon God, the just judge, he marched against the murderers of his kinsmen. In a night attack he set the harbor on fire, burnt the boats, and put to the sword those who had taken refuge there.
They all therefore praised the ways of the Lord, the just judge
who brings to light the things that are hidden. [2MACC 12:41]
Does not the ear judge words as the mouth tastes food? [JOB
Can anyone teach God knowledge, seeing that he judges those on
high? [JOB 21:22]
Does not God, in the heights of the heavens, behold the stars, high though they are? Yet you say, "What does God know? Can he judge through the thick darkness?"
Rise up, LORD, in your anger; rise against the fury of my
foes. Wake to judge as you have decreed. [PS 7:7]
O LORD, judge of the nations. Grant me justice, LORD, for I am
blameless, free of any guilt. [PS 7:9]
God is a just judge, who rebukes in anger every day. [PS 7:12]
It is God who governs the world with justice, who judges the
peoples with fairness. [PS 9:9]
Arise, LORD, let no mortal prevail; let the nations be judged
in your presence. [PS 9:20]
The heavens proclaim divine justice, for God alone is the
judge. [Taken from PS 50:6]
Then it will be said: "Truly there is a reward for the
just; there is a God who is judge on earth!" [PS 58:12]
We thank you, God, we give thanks; we call upon your name, declare your wonderful deeds.
You said: "I will choose the time; I will judge fairly. The earth and all its inhabitants will quake, but I have firmly set its pillars."
[Taken from PS 75:2-4]
Arise, O God, judge the earth, for yours are all the nations.
Rise up, judge of the earth; give the proud what they deserve.
The LORD has sworn and will not waver: "Like Melchizedek you are a priest forever." At your right hand is the Lord, who crushes kings on the day of wrath, Who, robed in splendor, judges nations, crushes heads across the wide earth, Who drinks from the brook by the wayside and thus holds high the head.
And I said to myself, both the just and the wicked God will
judge, since there is a time for every affair and on every work a
judgment. [ECCL 3:17]
Love justice, you who judge the earth; think of the LORD in goodness, and seek him in integrity of heart; Because he is found by those who test him not, and he manifests himself to those who do not disbelieve him.
Let us beset the just one, because he is obnoxious to us; he sets himself against our doings,
Reproaches us for transgressions of the law and charges us with violations of our training. He professes to have knowledge of God and styles himself a child of the LORD. To us he is the censure of our thoughts; merely to see him is a hardship for us, Because his life is not like other men's, and different are his ways. He judges us debased; he holds aloof from our paths as from things impure.
He calls blest the destiny of the just and boasts that God is his Father.
They shall judge nations and rule over peoples, and the LORD
shall be their King forever. [WISDOM 3:8]
Because, though you were ministers of his kingdom, you judged not rightly, and did not keep the law, nor walk according to the will of God, Terribly and swiftly shall he come against you, because judgment is stern for the
exalted - For the lowly may be pardoned out of mercy but the mighty shall be mightily put to the test.
Now with you is Wisdom, who knows your works and was present when you made the world;
Who understands what is pleasing in your eyes and what is conformable with your commands. Send her forth from your holy heavens and from your glorious throne dispatch her
That she may be with me and work with me, that I may know what is your pleasure. For she knows and understands all things, and will guide me discreetly in my affairs and safeguard me by her glory; Thus my deeds will be acceptable, and I shall judge your people justly and be worthy of my father's throne.
But as you are just, you govern all things justly; you regard it as unworthy of your power to punish one who has incurred no blame.
For your might is the source of justice; your mastery over all things makes you lenient to all. For you show your might when the perfection of your power is disbelieved; and in those who know you, you rebuke temerity. But though you are master of might, you judge with clemency, and with much lenience you govern us; for power, whenever you will, attends you. And you taught your people, by these deeds, that those who are just must be kind;
And you gave your sons good ground for hope that you would permit repentance for their sins. For these were enemies of your servants, doomed to death; yet, while you punished them with such solicitude and pleading, granting time and opportunity to abandon
wickedness, With what exactitude you judged your sons, to whose fathers you gave the sworn covenants of goodly promises! Us, therefore, you chastise and our enemies with a thousand blows you punish, that we may think earnestly of your goodness when we judge, and, when being judged, may look for mercy.
For truly the potter, laboriously working the soft earth, molds
for our service each several article: Both the vessels that serve
for clean purposes and their opposites, all alike; As to what
shall be the use of each vessel of either class the worker in clay
is the judge. [WISDOM 15:7]
Wisdom instructs her children and admonishes those who seek her.
Those who serve her serve the Holy One; those who love her the LORD loves. He who obeys her judges nations; he who hearkens to her dwells in her inmost chambers.
Seek not to become a judge if you have not strength to root out
crime, Or you will show favor to the ruler and mar your integrity.
Contend not at law with a judge, for he will settle it
according to his whim. [SIRACH 8:14]
A wise magistrate lends stability to his people, and the government of a prudent man is well ordered. As the people's judge, so are his ministers; as the head of a city, its inhabitants.
The prince, the ruler, the judge are in honor; but none is
greater than he who fears God. [SIRACH 10:23]
Great as his mercy is his punishment; he judges men, each
according to his deeds. [SIRACH 16:12]
The Eternal is the judge of all things without exception; the
LORD alone is just. [SIRACH 18:1]
Before you are judged, seek merit for yourself, and at the time
of visitation you will have a ransom. [SIRACH 18:19]
The prayer of the lowly pierces the clouds; it does not rest till it reaches its goal, Nor will it withdraw till the Most High responds, judges justly and affirms the right.
For Moses ordained him and anointed him with the holy oil, In a lasting covenant with him and with his family, as permanent as the heavens,
That he should serve God in his priesthood and bless his people in his name. He gave to him his laws, and authority to prescribe and to judge:
To teach the precepts to his people, and the ritual to the descendants of Israel.
Beloved of his people, dear to his Maker, dedicated from his
mother's womb, Consecrated to the LORD as a prophet, was Samuel,
the judge and priest. At God's word he established the kingdom and
anointed princes to rule the people. By the law of the LORD he judged the nation, when he visited
the encampments of Jacob. [SIRACH 46:13-14]
I will restore your judges as at first, and your counselors as
in the beginning; After that you shall be called city of justice,
faithful city. [ISA 1:26]
He shall judge between the nations, and impose terms on many
peoples. They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their
spears into pruning hooks; One nation shall not raise the sword
against another, nor shall they train for war again. [ISA 2:4]
Now, inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, judge between me and my vineyard: What more was there to do for my vineyard that I had not done?
Why, when I looked for the crop of grapes, did it bring forth wild grapes? Now, I will let you know what I mean to do to my vineyard:
Take away its hedge, give it to grazing, break through its wall, let it be trampled! Yes, I will make it a ruin: it shall not be pruned or hoed, but overgrown with thorns and briers;
I will command the clouds not to send rain upon it. The vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah are his cherished
plant [Taken from ISA 5:3-7]
But a shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse, and from his roots a bud shall blossom. The spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him: a spirit of wisdom and of understanding,
A spirit of counsel and of strength, a spirit of knowledge and of fear of the LORD, and his delight shall be the fear of the LORD.
Not by appearance shall he judge, nor by hearsay shall he decide, But he shall judge the poor with justice, and decide aright for the land's afflicted.
He shall strike the ruthless with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked. Justice shall be the band around his waist, and faithfulness a belt upon his hips.
A throne shall be set up in mercy, and on it shall sit in
fidelity (in David's tent) A judge upholding right and prompt to
do justice. [ISA 16:5]
Indeed the LORD will be there with us, majestic; yes, the LORD
our judge, the LORD our lawgiver, the LORD our king, he it is who
will save us. [ISA 33:22]
I will make my justice come speedily; my salvation shall go
forth (and my arm shall judge the nations); In me shall the
coastlands hope, and my arm they shall await. [ISA 51:5]
For the LORD shall judge all mankind by fire and sword. and
many shall be slain by the LORD. [ISA 66:16]
Yet withal you say, "I am innocent; at least, his anger is
turned away from me." Behold, I will judge you on that word
of yours, "I have not sinned." [JER 2:35]
But, you, O LORD of hosts, O just Judge, searcher of mind and
heart, Let me witness the vengeance you take on them, for to you I
have entrusted my cause! [JER 11:20]
"And the LORD fulfilled the warning he had uttered against us: against our judges, who governed Israel, against our kings and princes, and against the men of Israel and Judah. He brought down upon us evils so great that there has not been done anywhere under heaven what has been done in
Jerusalem" [Taken from BARUCH 2:1-2]
Now the end is upon you; I will unleash my anger against you
and judge you according to your conduct and lay upon you the
consequences of all your abominations. [EZEK 7:3]
Soon now I will pour out my fury upon you and spend my anger
upon you; I will judge you according to your conduct and lay upon
you the consequences of all your abominations. [EZEK 7:8]
When anguish comes they shall seek peace, but there will be none.
There shall be disaster after disaster, rumor after rumor. Prophetic vision shall fade; instruction shall be lacking to the priest, and counsel to the elders, while the prince shall be enveloped in terror, and the hands of the common people shall tremble. I will deal with them according to their conduct, and according to their judgments I will judge them; thus they shall know that I am the LORD.
By the sword you shall fall; at the boundaries of Israel I will
judge you; thus you shall know that I am the LORD. [EZEK 11:10]
If a man is virtuous - if he does what is right and just, if he does not eat on the mountains, nor raise his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel; if he does not defile his neighbor's wife, nor have relations with a woman in her menstrual period; if he oppresses no one, gives back the pledge received for a debt, commits no robbery; if he gives food to the hungry and clothes the naked; if he does not lend at interest nor exact usury; if he holds off from evildoing, judges fairly between a man and his opponent; if he lives by my statutes and is careful to observe my ordinances, that man is
virtuous - he shall surely live, says the Lord GOD. [EZEK 18:5-9]
Therefore I will judge you, house of Israel, each one according
to his ways, says the Lord GOD. Turn and be converted from all
your crimes, that they may be no cause of guilt for you. [EZEK
Return it to its sheath! In the place where you were created,
in the land of your origin, I will judge you. [EZEK 21:35]
Thus the word of the LORD came to me: You, son of man, would you judge, would you judge the bloody city? Then make known all her abominations, and say: Thus says the Lord GOD: Woe to the city which sheds blood within herself so that her time has come, and which has made idols for her own defilement. By the blood which you shed you have been made guilty, and with the idols you made you have become defiled; you have brought on your day, so that the end of your years has come. Therefore I make you an object of scorn to the nations and a laughingstock to all foreign lands.
Then the LORD said to me: Son of man, would you judge Oholah
and Oholibah? Then make known to them their abominations. [EZEK
I, the LORD, have spoken; it is coming, for I will bring it
about without fail. I will not have pity nor repent. By your
conduct and your deeds you shall be judged, says the Lord GOD.
Yet your countrymen say, "The way of the LORD is not fair!"; but it is their way that is not fair. When a virtuous man turns away from what is right and does wrong, he shall die for it. But when a wicked man turns away from wickedness and does what is right and just, because of this he shall live. And still you say, "The way of the LORD is not fair!"? I will judge every one of you according to his ways, O house of Israel.
As for you, my sheep, says the Lord GOD, I will judge between one sheep and another, between rams and goats. Was it not enough for you to graze on the best pasture, that you had to trample the rest of your pastures with your feet? Was it not enough for you to drink the clearest water, that you had to foul the remainder with your feet? Thus my sheep had to graze on what your feet had trampled and drink what your feet had fouled. Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Now will I judge between the fat and the lean sheep. Because you push with side and shoulder, and butt all the weak sheep with your horns until you have driven them out, I will save my sheep so that they may no longer be despoiled, and I will judge between one sheep and another. I will appoint one shepherd over them to pasture them, my servant David; he shall pasture them and be their shepherd. I, the LORD, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them. I, the LORD, have spoken.
Because you said: The two nations and the two lands have become mine; we shall possess
them - although the LORD was there - therefore, as I live, says the Lord GOD, I will deal with you according to your anger and your envy which you have exercised (in your hatred) against them. I will make myself known among you when I judge you, and you shall know that I am the LORD.
[Taken from EZEK 35:10-12]
I scattered them among the nations, dispersing them over
foreign lands; according to their conduct and deeds I judged them.
In capital cases they shall stand as judges, judging them
according to my decrees. They shall observe my laws and statutes
on all my festivals, and keep my sabbaths holy. [EZEK 44:24]
That year, two elders of the people were appointed judges, of
whom the Lord said, "Wickedness has come out of Babylon: from
the elders who were to govern the people as judges." [DAN
I will root out the judge from her midst, and her princes I
will slay with him, says the LORD. [AMOS 2:3]
He shall judge between many peoples and impose terms on strong
and distant nations; They shall beat their swords into plowshares,
and their spears into pruning hooks; One nation shall not raise
the sword against another, nor shall they train for war again.
Alas! I am as when the fruit is gathered, as when the vines have been gleaned;
There is no cluster to eat, no early fig that I crave. The faithful are gone from the earth, among men the upright are no more!
They all lie in wait to shed blood, each one ensnares the other. Their hands succeed at evil; the prince makes demands,
The judge is had for a price, The great man speaks as he pleases, The best of them is like a brier, the most upright like a thorn hedge.
The day announced by your watchmen! your punishment has come; now is the time of your confusion.
"Thus says the LORD of hosts: If you walk in my ways and
heed my charge, you shall judge my house and keep my courts, and I
will give you access among these standing here." [ZECH 3:7]
"You have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'You shall not kill; and whoever kills will be liable to judgment.' But I say to you, whoever is
angry with his brother will be liable to judgment, and whoever says to his brother, 'Raqa,' will be answerable to the Sanhedrin, and whoever says, 'You fool,' will be liable to fiery Gehenna. Therefore, if you bring your gift to the altar, and there recall that your brother has anything against you, leave your gift there at the altar, go first and be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift. Settle with your opponent quickly while on the way to court with him. Otherwise your opponent will hand you over to the judge, and the judge will hand you over to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison. Amen, I say to you, you will not be released until you have paid the last penny."
"Stop judging, that you may not be judged. For as you judge, so will you be judged, and the measure with which you measure will be measured out to you. Why do you notice the splinter in your brother's eye, but do not perceive the wooden beam in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, 'Let me remove that splinter from your eye,' while the wooden beam is in your eye? You hypocrite,
remove the wooden beam from your eye first; then you will see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother's eye."
Then they brought to him a demoniac who was blind and mute. He cured the mute person so that he could speak and see. All the crowd was astounded, and said, "Could this perhaps be the Son of David?" But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, "This man drives out demons only by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons." But he knew what they were thinking and said to them,
"Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste, and no town or house divided against itself will stand. And if Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself; how, then, will his kingdom stand? And if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people
drive them out? Therefore they will be your judges. But if it is by the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you."
The Pharisees and Sadducees came and, to test him, asked him to show them a sign from heaven. He said to them in reply, "(In the evening you say, 'Tomorrow will be fair, for the sky is red'; and, in the morning, 'Today will be stormy, for the sky is red and threatening.' You know how to judge the appearance of the sky, but you cannot judge the signs of the
times.)" [MT 16:1-3]
Then Peter said to him in reply, "We have given up everything and followed
you. What will there be for us?" Jesus said to them, "Amen, I say to you that you who have followed me, in the new age, when the Son of Man is seated on his throne of glory, will yourselves sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
"Stop judging and you will not be judged. Stop condemning and you will not be condemned. Forgive and you will be forgiven. Give and gifts will be given to you; a good measure, packed together, shaken down, and overflowing, will be poured into your lap. For the measure with which you measure will in return be measured out to you."
Jesus said to him in reply, "Simon, I have something to say to you." "Tell me, teacher," he said. "Two people were in debt to a certain creditor; one owed five hundred days' wages
and the other owed fifty. Since they were unable to repay the debt, he forgave it for both. Which of them will love him more?" Simon said in reply, "The one, I suppose, whose larger debt was forgiven." He said to him, "You have judged rightly."
He was driving out a demon (that was) mute, and when the demon had gone out, the mute person spoke and the crowds were amazed.
Some of them said, "By the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, he drives out demons." Others, to test him, asked him for a sign from heaven. But he knew their thoughts and said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste and house will fall against house. And if Satan is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that it is by Beelzebul that I drive out demons. If I, then, drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people
drive them out? Therefore they will be your judges. But if it is by the finger of God that (I) drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you."
Someone in the crowd said to him, "Teacher, tell my brother to share the inheritance with me." He replied to him, "Friend, who appointed me as your judge and arbitrator?" Then he said to the crowd, "Take care to guard against all greed, for though one may be rich, one's life does not consist of possessions."
"Why do you not judge for yourselves what is right? If you are to go with your opponent before a magistrate, make an effort to settle the matter on the way; otherwise your opponent will turn you over to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the constable, and the constable throw you into prison. I say to you, you will not be released until you have paid the last
penny." [LK 12:57-59]
Then he told them a parable about the necessity for them to pray always without becoming weary. He said, "There was a judge in a certain town who neither feared God nor respected any human being. And a widow in that town used to come to him and say, 'Render a just decision for me against my adversary.' For a long time the judge was unwilling, but eventually he thought, 'While it is true that I neither fear God nor respect any human being, because this widow keeps bothering me I shall deliver a just decision for her lest she finally come and strike me.'" The Lord said, "Pay attention to what the dishonest judge says. Will not God then secure the rights of his chosen ones who call out to him day and night? Will he be slow to answer them? I tell you, he will see to it that justice is done for them speedily. But when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?"
Nor does the Father judge anyone, but he has given all judgment
to his Son, so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. Whoever does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.
"I cannot do anything on my own; I judge as I hear, and my
judgment is just, because I do not seek my own will but the will
of the one who sent me." [JN 5:30]
"If a man can receive circumcision on a sabbath so that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me because I made a whole person well on a sabbath? Stop judging by appearances, but judge justly."
You judge by appearances, but I do not judge anyone. And even if I should judge, my judgment is valid, because I am
not alone, but it is I and the Father who sent me. [JN 8:15-16]
Jesus answered, "I am not possessed; I honor my Father, but you dishonor me. I do not seek my own glory; there is one who seeks it and he is the one who judges."
Whoever rejects me and does not accept my words has something to judge him: the word that I spoke, it will condemn him on the last day, because I did not speak on my own, but the Father who sent me commanded me what to say and speak.
So Pilate came out to them and said, "What charge do you bring (against) this man?" They answered and said to him, "If he were not a criminal, we would not have handed him over to you." At this, Pilate said to them, "Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law." The Jews answered him, "We do not have the right to execute
anyone," in order that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled that he said indicating the kind of death he would die.
So they called them back and ordered them not to speak or teach at all in the name of Jesus. Peter and John, however, said to them in reply, "Whether it is right in the sight of God for us to obey you rather than God, you be the judges. It is impossible for us not to speak about what we have seen and heard."
Moses was educated (in) all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was powerful in his words and deeds. "When he was forty years old, he decided to visit his kinsfolk, the Israelites. When he saw one of them treated unjustly, he defended and avenged the oppressed man by striking down the Egyptian. He assumed (his) kinsfolk would understand that God was offering them deliverance through him, but they did not understand. The next day he appeared to them as they were fighting and tried to reconcile them peacefully, saying, 'Men, you are brothers. Why are you harming one another?' Then the one who was harming his neighbor pushed him aside, saying, 'Who appointed you ruler and judge over us? Are you thinking of killing me as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?' Moses fled when he heard this and settled as an alien in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.
Forty years later, an angel appeared to him in the desert near Mount Sinai in the flame of a burning bush. When Moses saw it, he was amazed at the sight, and as he drew near to look at it, the voice of the Lord came, 'I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob.' Then Moses, trembling, did not dare to look at it. But the Lord said to him, 'Remove the sandals from your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground. I have witnessed the affliction of my people in Egypt and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to rescue them. Come now, I will send you to Egypt.' This Moses, whom they had rejected with the words, 'Who appointed you ruler and judge?' God sent as (both) ruler and deliverer, through the angel who appeared to him in the bush."
He commissioned us to preach to the people and testify that he
is the one appointed by God as judge of the living and the dead.
"God has overlooked the times of ignorance, but now he demands that all people everywhere repent because he has established a day on which he will 'judge the world with justice' through a man he has appointed, and he has provided confirmation for all by raising him from the dead."
But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews rose up together against Paul and brought him to the tribunal, saying, "This man is inducing people to worship God contrary to the
law." When Paul was about to reply, Gallio spoke to the Jews, "If it were a matter of some crime or malicious fraud, I should with reason hear the complaint of you Jews; but since it is a question of arguments over doctrine and titles and your own law, see to it yourselves. I do not wish to be a judge of such matters." And he drove them away from the tribunal.
Then the governor motioned to him to speak and Paul replied,
"I know that you have been a judge over this nation for many
years and so I am pleased to make my defense before you." [ACTS
Therefore, you are without excuse, every one of you who passes
judgment. For by the standard by which you judge another you condemn yourself, since you, the judge, do the very same things.
We know that the judgment of God on those who do such things is true. Do you suppose, then, you who judge those who engage in such things and yet do them yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you hold his priceless kindness, forbearance, and patience in low esteem, unaware that the kindness of God would lead you to repentance? By your stubbornness and impenitent heart, you are storing up wrath for yourself for the day of wrath and revelation of the just judgment of God, who will repay everyone according to his
works: eternal life to those who seek glory, honor, and immortality through perseverance in good works,
but wrath and fury to those who selfishly disobey the truth and obey wickedness. Yes, affliction and distress will come upon every human being who does evil, Jew first and then Greek. But there will be glory, honor, and peace for everyone who does good, Jew first and then Greek. There is no partiality with God.
All who sin outside the law will also perish without reference to it, and all who sin under the law will be judged in accordance with it.
For it is not those who hear the law who are just in the sight of God; rather, those who observe the law will be justified. For when the Gentiles who do not have the law by nature observe the prescriptions of the law, they are a law for themselves even though they do not have the law. They show that the demands of the law are written in their hearts,
while their conscience also bears witness and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even defend them on the day when, according to my gospel, God will judge people's hidden works through Christ Jesus.
What advantage is there then in being a Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision? Much, in every respect. (For) in the first place, they were entrusted with the utterances of God. What if some were unfaithful? Will their infidelity nullify the fidelity of God? Of course not! God must be true, though every human
being is a liar, as it is written: "That you may be justified in your words, and conquer when you are judged." But if our wickedness provides proof of God's righteousness, what can we say? Is God unjust, humanly speaking, to inflict his wrath? Of course not! For how else is God to judge the world? But if God's truth redounds to his glory through my falsehood, why am I still being condemned as a sinner? And why not
say - as we are accused and as some claim we say - that we should do evil that good may come of it? Their penalty is what they deserve.
Why then do you judge your brother? Or you, why do you look down on your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of God;
for it is written: "As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bend before me, and every tongue shall give praise to God." So (then) each of us shall give an account of himself (to God). Then let us no longer judge one another, but rather resolve never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother.
We have not received the spirit of the world but the Spirit that is from God, so that we may understand the things freely given us by God. And we speak about them not with words taught by human wisdom, but with words taught by the Spirit, describing spiritual realities in spiritual
terms. Now the natural person does not accept what pertains to the Spirit of God, for to him it is foolishness, and he cannot understand it, because it is judged spiritually.
The spiritual person, however, can judge everything but is not subject to judgment
by anyone. For "who has known the mind of the Lord, so as to counsel him?" But we have the mind of Christ.
Thus should one regard us: as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. Now it is of course required of stewards that they be found trustworthy. It does not concern me in the least that I be judged by you or any human tribunal; I do not even pass judgment on myself; I am not conscious of anything against me, but I do not thereby stand acquitted; the one who judges me is the Lord. Therefore, do not make any judgment before the appointed time, until the Lord comes, for he will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will manifest the motives of our hearts, and then everyone will receive praise from God.
I wrote you in my letter not to associate with immoral people, not at all referring to the immoral of this world or the greedy and robbers or idolaters; for you would then have to leave the world. But I now write to you not to associate with anyone named a brother, if he is immoral, greedy, an idolater, a slanderer, a drunkard, or a robber, not even to eat with such a person. For why should I be judging outsiders? Is it not your business to judge those within? God will judge those outside. "Purge the evil person from your midst."
How can any one of you with a case against another dare to bring it to the unjust for judgment instead of to the holy ones? Do you not know that the holy ones will judge the world? If the world is to be judged by you, are you unqualified for the lowest law courts? Do you not know that we will judge angels? Then why not everyday matters? If, therefore, you have courts for everyday matters, do you seat as judges people of no standing in the church? I say this to shame you. Can it be that there is not one among you wise enough to be able to settle a case between brothers? But rather brother goes to court against brother, and that before unbelievers? Now indeed (then) it is, in any case, a failure on your part that you have lawsuits against one another. Why not rather put up with injustice? Why not rather let yourselves be cheated? Instead, you inflict injustice and cheat, and this to brothers. Do you not know that the unjust will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators nor idolaters nor adulterers nor boy prostitutes nor practicing homosexuals nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor robbers will inherit the kingdom of God. That is what some of you used to be; but now you have had yourselves washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Therefore, my beloved, avoid idolatry. I am speaking as to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I am saying.
Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head unveiled? Does not nature itself teach you that if a man wears his hair long it is a disgrace to him, whereas if a woman has long hair it is her glory, because long hair has been given (her) for a covering?
If we discerned ourselves, we would not be under judgment; but since we are judged by (the) Lord, we are being disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world.
Thus, tongues are a sign not for those who believe but for unbelievers, whereas prophecy is not for unbelievers but for those who believe. So if the whole church meets in one place and everyone speaks in tongues, and then uninstructed people or unbelievers should come in, will they not say that you are out of your minds? But if everyone is prophesying, and an unbeliever or uninstructed person should come in, he will be convinced by everyone and judged by everyone, and the secrets of his heart will be disclosed, and so he will fall down and worship God, declaring, "God is really in your midst."
But as we were judged worthy by God to be entrusted with the
gospel, that is how we speak, not as trying to please human
beings, but rather God, who judges our hearts. [1THES 2:4]
I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingly power: proclaim the word; be persistent whether it is convenient or inconvenient; convince, reprimand, encourage through all patience and teaching. For the time will come when people will not tolerate sound doctrine but, following their own desires and insatiable curiosity,
will accumulate teachers and will stop listening to the truth and will be diverted to myths. But you, be self-possessed in all circumstances; put up with hardship; perform the work of an evangelist; fulfill your ministry.
From now on the crown of righteousness awaits me, which the
Lord, the just judge, will award to me on that day, and not only
to me, but to all who have longed for his appearance. [2TM 4:8]
Anyone who rejects the law of Moses is put to death without pity on the testimony of two or three witnesses. Do you not think that a much worse punishment is due the one who has contempt for the Son of God, considers unclean the covenant-blood by which he was consecrated, and insults the spirit of grace? We know the one who said:
"Vengeance is mine; I will repay," and again: "The Lord will judge his people." It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
Indeed, so fearful was the spectacle that Moses said, "I am terrified and trembling." No, you have approached Mount Zion and the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and countless angels in festal gathering, and the assembly of the firstborn enrolled in heaven,
and God the judge of all, and the spirits of the just made perfect, and Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and the sprinkled blood that speaks more eloquently
than that of Abel. See that you do not reject the one who speaks. For if they did not escape when they refused the one who warned them on earth, how much more in our case if we turn away from the one who warns from heaven.
Let marriage be honored among all and the marriage bed be kept
undefiled, for God will judge the immoral and adulterers. [HEB
My brothers, show no partiality as you adhere to the faith in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ. For if a man with gold rings on his fingers and in fine clothes comes into your assembly, and a poor person in shabby clothes also comes in, and you pay attention to the one wearing the fine clothes and say, "Sit here, please," while you say to the poor one, "Stand there," or "Sit at my feet," have you not made distinctions among yourselves and become judges with evil
designs? Listen, my beloved brothers. Did not God choose those who are poor
in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom that he promised to those who love him? But you dishonored the poor person. Are not the rich oppressing you? And do they themselves not haul you off to court? Is it not they who blaspheme the noble name that was invoked over you? However, if you fulfill the royal
law according to the scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you are doing well. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, and are convicted by the law as transgressors. For whoever keeps the whole law, but falls short in one particular, has become guilty in respect to all of it. For he who said, "You shall not commit adultery," also said, "You shall not kill." Even if you do not commit adultery but kill, you have become a transgressor of the law. So speak and so act as people who will be judged by the law of
freedom. For the judgment is merciless to one who has not shown mercy; mercy triumphs over judgment.
Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers, for you realize that we will be judged more strictly, for we all fall short in many respects.
[Taken from JMS 3:1-2]
Do not speak evil of one another, brothers. Whoever speaks evil
of a brother or judges his brother speaks evil of the law and
judges the law. If you judge the law, you are not a doer of the
law but a judge. There is one lawgiver and judge who is able to save or to
destroy. Who then are you to judge your neighbor? [JMS 4:11-12]
Do not complain, brothers, about one another, that you may not be judged. Behold, the Judge is standing before the gates. Take as an example of hardship and patience, brothers, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. Indeed we call blessed those who have persevered. You have heard of the perseverance of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, because "the Lord is compassionate and merciful."
Now if you invoke as Father him who judges impartially according to each one's works, conduct yourselves with reverence during the time of your sojourning, realizing that you were ransomed from your futile conduct, handed on by your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold
but with the precious blood of Christ as of a spotless unblemished
lamb. [1PT 1:17-19]
For whenever anyone bears the pain of unjust suffering because of consciousness of God, that is a grace. But what credit is there if you are patient when beaten for doing wrong? But if you are patient when you suffer for doing what is good, this is a grace before God.
For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example that you should follow in his footsteps.
"He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his
mouth." When he was insulted, he returned no insult; when he suffered, he did not threaten; instead, he handed himself over to the one who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body upon the cross, so that, free from sin, we might live for righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed.
For the time that has passed is sufficient for doing what the Gentiles like to do: living in debauchery, evil desires, drunkenness, orgies, carousing, and wanton idolatry. They are surprised that you do not plunge into the same swamp of profligacy, and they vilify you; but they will give an account to him who stands ready to judge the living and the dead.
Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet. There were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world now belongs to our Lord and to his Anointed, and he will reign forever and ever." The twenty-four elders who sat on their thrones before God prostrated themselves and worshiped God and said:
"We give thanks to you, Lord God almighty, who are and who were. For you have assumed your great power and have established your reign. The nations raged, but your wrath has come, and the time for the dead to be judged,
and to recompense your servants, the prophets, and the holy ones and those who fear your name, the small and the great alike,
and to destroy those who destroy the earth." [RV 11:15-18]
"Therefore, her plagues will come in one day, pestilence, grief,
and famine; she will be consumed by fire. For mighty is the Lord
God who judges her." [RV 18:8]
"Rejoice over her, heaven, you holy ones, apostles, and
prophets. For God has judged your case against her." [RV
Then I saw the heavens opened, and there was a white horse; its
rider was (called) "Faithful and True." He judges and
wages war in righteousness. [RV 19:11]
I saw the dead, the great and the lowly, standing before the
throne, and scrolls were opened. Then another scroll was opened,
the book of life. The dead were judged according to their deeds,
by what was written in the scrolls. The sea gave up its dead; then Death and Hades gave up their
dead. All the dead were judged according to their deeds. [RV 20:12-13]
/ punishment / unpunished [P22]
/ guilty [G12]
/ sins / sinned / sinful / sinner [S18a]
second coming [S8]
/ recompense [R9]
/ righteousness [R11]
/ works [D3a]
/ repentance [R4]
/ merciful [M3a]
Love in the New Testament
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